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  1. Abstract

    The ion foreshock, filled with backstreaming foreshock ions, is very dynamic with many transient structures that disturb the bow shock and the magnetosphere‐ionosphere system. It has been shown that foreshock ions can be generated through either solar wind reflection at the bow shock or leakage from the magnetosheath. While solar wind reflection is widely believed to be the dominant generation process, our investigation using Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms mission observations reveals that the relative importance of magnetosheath leakage has been underestimated. We show from case studies that when the magnetosheath ions exhibit field‐aligned anisotropy, a large fraction of them attains sufficient field‐aligned speed to escape upstream, resulting in very high foreshock ion density. The observed foreshock ion density, velocity, phase space density, and distribution function shape are consistent with such an escape or leakage process. Our results suggest that magnetosheath leakage could be a significant contributor to the formation of the ion foreshock. Further characterization of the magnetosheath leakage process is a critical step toward building predictive models of the ion foreshock, a necessary step to better forecast foreshock‐driven space weather effects.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2025
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2024
  3. Thin-film ferroelectrics have been pursued for capacitive and nonvolatile memory devices. They rely on polarizations that are oriented in an out-of-plane direction to facilitate integration and addressability with complementary metal-oxide semiconductor architectures. The internal depolarization field, however, formed by surface charges can suppress the out-of-plane polarization in ultrathin ferroelectric films that could otherwise exhibit lower coercive fields and operate with lower power. Here, we unveil stabilization of a polar longitudinal optical (LO) mode in the n=2 Ruddlesden–Popper family that produces out-of-plane ferroelectricity, persists under open-circuit boundary conditions, and is distinct from hyperferroelectricity. Our first-principles calculations show the stabilization of the LO mode is ubiquitous in chalcogenides and halides and relies on anharmonic trilinear mode coupling. We further show that the out-of-plane ferroelectricity can be predicted with a crystallographic tolerance factor, and we use these insights to design a room-temperature multiferroic with strong magnetoelectric coupling suitable for magneto-electric spin-orbit transistors. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 24, 2024
  4. Abstract

    Pick’s disease (PiD) is a subtype of the tauopathy form of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD-tau) characterized by intraneuronal 3R-tau inclusions. PiD can underly various dementia syndromes, including primary progressive aphasia (PPA), characterized by an isolated and progressive impairment of language and left-predominant atrophy, and behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), characterized by progressive dysfunction in personality and bilateral frontotemporal atrophy. In this study, we investigated the neocortical and hippocampal distributions of Pick bodies in bvFTD and PPA to establish clinicopathologic concordance between PiD and the salience of the aphasicversusbehavioral phenotype. Eighteen right-handed cases with PiD as the primary pathologic diagnosis were identified from the Northwestern University Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center brain bank (bvFTD, N = 9; PPA, N = 9). Paraffin-embedded sections were stained immunohistochemically with AT8 to visualize Pick bodies, and unbiased stereological analysis was performed in up to six regions bilaterally [middle frontal gyrus (MFG), superior temporal gyrus (STG), inferior parietal lobule (IPL), anterior temporal lobe (ATL), dentate gyrus (DG) and CA1 of the hippocampus], and unilateral occipital cortex (OCC). In bvFTD, peak neocortical densities of Pick bodies were in the MFG, while the ATL was the most affected in PPA. Both the IPL and STG had greater leftward pathology in PPA, with the latter reaching significance (p < 0.01). In bvFTD, Pick body densities were significantly right-asymmetric in the STG (p < 0.05). Hippocampal burden was not clinicopathologically concordant, as both bvFTD and PPA cases demonstrated significant hippocampal pathology compared to neocortical densities (p < 0.0001). Inclusion-to-neuron analyses in a subset of PPA cases confirmed that neurons in the DG are disproportionately burdened with inclusions compared to neocortical areas. Overall, stereological quantitation suggests that the distribution of neocortical Pick body pathology is concordant with salient clinical features unique to PPA vs. bvFTD while raising intriguing questions about the selective vulnerability of the hippocampus to 3R-tauopathies.

     
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  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2024
  6. Abstract

    In the advancing field of 5G technologies, particularly at the 60 GHz band, dielectric resonator antennas (DRAs) stand out for their low conduction loss and high radiation efficiency. However, the traditional design process for DRAs, predominantly reliant on intuitive reasoning and trial‐and‐error methods, is notably inefficient and resource‐intensive. Addressing this critical challenge, our research introduces a pioneering approach: a generative adversarial network (GAN)‐based model specifically tailored for automating DRA structure design. This novel model represents the first of its kind in the domain, marking a significant departure from conventional methods. Our GAN model uniquely integrates a simulator for DRA modeling and a generator for DRA structure design, streamlining the design process. To effectively train this model, we created a simulated data set comprising pattern–annotation pairs of geometric shapes andS11parameters. This data set enabled the GAN to capture the intrinsic principles underlying DRA design. The practical impact of our model is profound; it significantly expedites the DRA design process, aligning it more closely with specific user requirements while conserving valuable time and resources. This breakthrough approach not only enhances the efficiency of DRA design but also sets a new standard in antenna technology development for future wireless communications.

     
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