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  1. Abstract The reconstruction of the trajectories of charged particles, or track reconstruction, is a key computational challenge for particle and nuclear physics experiments. While the tuning of track reconstruction algorithms can depend strongly on details of the detector geometry, the algorithms currently in use by experiments share many common features. At the same time, the intense environment of the High-Luminosity LHC accelerator and other future experiments is expected to put even greater computational stress on track reconstruction software, motivating the development of more performant algorithms. We present here A Common Tracking Software (ACTS) toolkit, which draws on the experience with track reconstruction algorithms in the ATLAS experiment and presents them in an experiment-independent and framework-independent toolkit. It provides a set of high-level track reconstruction tools which are agnostic to the details of the detection technologies and magnetic field configuration and tested for strict thread-safety to support multi-threaded event processing. We discuss the conceptual design and technical implementation of ACTS, selected applications and performance of ACTS, and the lessons learned.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 10, 2023
  4. Abstract As a major nominally anhydrous mineral (NAM) in the Earth’s upper mantle, orthopyroxene could host up to several hundred parts per million H2O in its crystal structure and transport the H2O to the deep Earth. To study the effect of structural H2O on the elasticity of orthopyroxene, we have measured the single-crystal elasticity of Mg1.991Al0.065Si1.951O6 with 842–900 ppm H2O and 1.64 ± 0.20 wt% Al2O3 at ambient conditions using Brillouin spectroscopy. The best-fit single-crystal elastic moduli (Cijs), bulk (KS0), and shear (G0) modulus of the hydrous Al-bearing orthopyroxene were determined as: C11 = 235(2) GPa, C22 = 173(2) GPa, C33 = 222(2) GPa, C44 = 86(1) GPa, C55 = 82(1) GPa, C66 = 82(1) GPa, C12 = 75(3) GPa, C13 = 67(2) GPa, and C23 = 49(2) GPa, KS0 = 111(2) GPa, and G0 = 78(1) GPa. Systematic analysis based on the results presented in this and previous studies suggests that the incorporation of 842–900 ppm H2O would increase C13 by 12.0(7)% and decrease C23 by 8.6(8)%. The effects on C11, C22, C33, C44, C66, KS0, and VP are subtle if not negligible when considering the uncertainties. The C55, C12, G0, and VS are not affected by the presencemore »of structural H2O. Although laboratory experiments show that Fe,Al-bearing orthopyroxenes can host up to 0.8 wt% H2O in its structure, future high-pressure-temperature elasticity measurements on orthopyroxene with higher H2O content are needed to help better quantify this effect.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023
  5. Abstract

    Over the last 20 years, N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) have emerged as a dominant direction in ligand development in transition metal catalysis. In particular, strong σ-donation in combination with tunable steric environment make NHCs to be among the most common ligands used for C–C and C–heteroatom bond formation. Herein, we report the study on steric and electronic properties of thiazol-2-ylidenes. We demonstrate that the thiazole heterocycle and enhanced π-electrophilicity result in a class of highly active carbene ligands for electrophilic cyclization reactions to form valuable oxazoline heterocycles. The evaluation of steric, electron-donating and π-accepting properties as well as structural characterization and coordination chemistry is presented. This mode of catalysis can be applied to late-stage drug functionalization to furnish attractive building blocks for medicinal chemistry. Considering the key role of N-heterocyclic ligands, we anticipate thatN-aryl thiazol-2-ylidenes will be of broad interest as ligands in modern chemical synthesis.

  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 5, 2023
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