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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 23, 2024
  2. Abstract

    Stream restoration is widely used to mitigate the degradation of urban stream channels, protect infrastructure, and reduce sediment and nutrient loadings to receiving waterbodies. Stabilizing and revegetating riparian areas can also provide recreational opportunities and amenities, and improve quality of life for nearby residents. In this project, we developed indices of an environmental benefit (potential nitrate load reduction, a priority in the Chesapeake Bay watershed) and economic benefit (household willingness to pay, WTP) of stream restoration for all low order stream reaches in three main watersheds in the Baltimore metro region. We found spatial asynchrony of these benefits such that their spatial patterns were negatively correlated. Stream restoration in denser urban, less wealthy neighborhoods have high WTP, but low potential nitrate load reduction, while suburban and exurban, wealthy neighborhoods have the reverse trend. The spatial asynchrony raises challenges for decision makers to balance economic efficiency, social equity, and specific environmental goals of stream restoration programs.

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  3. Abstract

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) heteroplasmies are associated with various diseases but the transmission of heteroplasmy from mtDNA to mitochondrial RNA (mtRNA) remains unclear. We compared heteroplasmies in mtRNA from 446 human B-lymphoblastoid cell lines to their corresponding mtDNA using deep sequencing data from two independent studies. We observed 2786 heteroplasmies presenting in both DNA and RNA at 1% frequency cutoff. Among them, the frequencies of 2427 (87.1%) heteroplasmies were highly consistent (less than 5% frequency difference) between DNA and RNA. To validate these frequency consistencies, we isolated DNA and RNA simultaneously from GM12282 cell line used in those two sequencing studies, and resequenced its heteroplasmy sites. Interestingly, we also observed the rapid changes of heteroplasmy frequencies during 4 weeks of the cell culture: the frequencies at Day 14 increased by >25% than those at Day 0. However, the heteroplasmy frequencies from the same time point were highly consistent. In summary, our analysis on public data together within vitrostudy indicates that the heteroplasmies in DNA can be transcribed into RNA with high fidelity. Meanwhile, the observed rapid-changing heteroplasmy frequency can potentially disturb cell functions, which could be an overlooked confounding factor in cell line related studies.

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