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  1. We consider the problem of spectrum sharing by multiple cellular operators. We propose a novel deep Reinforcement Learning (DRL)-based distributed power allocation scheme which utilizes the multi-agent Deep Deterministic Policy Gradient (MA-DDPG) algorithm. In particular, we model the base stations (BSs) that belong to the multiple operators sharing the same band, as DRL agents that simultaneously determine the transmit powers to their scheduled user equipment (UE) in a synchronized manner. The power decision of each BS is based on its own observation of the radio environment (RF) environment, which consists of interference measurements reported from the UEs it serves, and a limited amount of information obtained from other BSs. One advantage of the proposed scheme is that it addresses the single-agent non-stationarity problem of RL in the multi-agent scenario by incorporating the actions and observations of other BSs into each BS's own critic which helps it to gain a more accurate perception of the overall RF environment. A centralized-training-distributed-execution framework is used to train the policies where the critics are trained over the joint actions and observations of all BSs while the actor of each BS only takes the local observation as input in order to produce the transmit power.more »Simulation with the 6 GHz Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure (U-NII)-5 band shows that the proposed power allocation scheme can achieve better throughput performance than several state-of-the-art approaches.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 4, 2024
  2. In this manuscript, we present a multiscale Adaptive Reduced-Order Modeling (AROM) framework to efficiently simulate the response of heterogeneous composite microstructures under interfacial and volumetric damage. This framework builds on the eigendeformation-based reduced-order homogenization model (EHM), which is based on the transformation field analysis (TFA) and operates in the context of computational homogenization with a focus on model order reduction of the microscale problem. EHM pre-computes certain microstructure information by solving a series of linear elastic problems defined over the fully resolved microstructure (i.e., concentration tensors, interaction tensors) and approximates the microscale problem using a much smaller basis spanned over subdomains (also called parts) of the microstructure. Using this reduced basis, and prescribed spatial variation of inelastic response fields over the parts, the microscale problem leads to a set of algebraic equations with part-wise responses as unknowns, instead of node-wise displacements as in finite element analysis. The volumetric and interfacial influence functions are calculated by using the Interface enriched Generalized Finite Element Method (IGFEM) to compute the coefficient tensors, in which the finite element discretization does not need to conform to the material interfaces. AROM takes advantage of pre-computed coefficient tensors associated with the finest ROM and efficiently computes themore »coefficient tensors of a series of gradually coarsening ROMs. During the multiscale analysis stage, the simulation starts with a coarse ROM which can capture the initial elastic response well. As the loading continues and response in certain parts of the microstructure starts to localize, the analysis adaptively switches to the next level of refined ROM to better capture those local responses. The performance of AROM is evaluated by comparing the results with regular EHM (no adaptive refinement) and IGFEM under different loading conditions and failure modes for various 2D and 3D microstructures. The proposed AROM provides an efficient way to model history-dependent nonlinear responses for composite materials under localized interface failure and phase damage.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 19, 2024
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2024
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2023
  5. Elasticity is one important feature in modern cloud computing systems and can result in computation failure or significantly increase computing time. Such elasticity means that virtual machines over the cloud can be preempted under a short notice (e.g., hours or minutes) if a high-priority job appears; on the other hand, new virtual machines may become available over time to compensate the computing resources. Coded Storage Elastic Computing (CSEC) introduced by Yang et al. in 2018 is an effective and efficient approach to overcome the elasticity and it costs relatively less storage and computation load. However, one of the limitations of the CSEC is that it may only be applied to certain types of computations (e.g., linear) and may be challenging to be applied to more involved computations because the coded data storage and approximation are often needed. Hence, it may be preferred to use uncoded storage by directly copying data into the virtual machines. In addition, based on our own measurement, virtual machines on Amazon EC2 clusters often have heterogeneous computation speed even if they have exactly the same configurations (e.g., CPU, RAM, I/O cost). In this paper, we introduce a new optimization framework on Uncoded Storage Elastic Computing (USEC)more »systems with heterogeneous computing speed to minimize the overall computation time. Under this framework, we propose optimal solutions of USEC systems with or without straggler tolerance using different storage placements. Our proposed algorithms are evaluated using power iteration applications on Amazon EC2.« less
  6. Abstract

    The direct selective laser sintering (SLS) process was successfully demonstrated for additive manufacturing of high-entropy carbide ceramics (HECC), in which a Yb fiber laser was employed for ultrafast (in seconds) reactive sintering of HECC specimens from a powder mixture of constitute monocarbides. A single-phase non-equiatomic HECC was successfully formed in the 4-HECC specimen with a uniform distribution of Zr, Nb, Hf, Ta, and C. In contrast, a three-layer microstructure was formed in the 5-HECC specimen with five metal elements (Zr, Nb, Hf, Ta and Ti), consisting of a TiC-rich top layer, a Zr–Hf–C enriched intermediate layer, and a non-equiatomic Zr–Ta–Nb–Hf–C HECC layer. Vickers hardness of 4- and 5-HECC specimens were 22.2 and 21.8 GPa, respectively, on the surface. These findings have important implications on the fundamental mechanisms governing interactions between laser and monocarbide powders to form a solid solution of HECCs during SLS.

    Graphical abstract

  7. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2023
  8. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2024
  9. The Arabidopsis DEMETER (DME) DNA glycosylase demethylates the central cell genome prior to fertilization. This epigenetic reconfiguration of the female gamete companion cell establishes gene imprinting in the endosperm and is essential for seed viability. DME demethylates small and genic-flanking transposons as well as intergenic and heterochromatin sequences, but how DME is recruited to these loci remains unknown. H1.2 was identified as a DME-interacting protein in a yeast two-hybrid screen, and maternal genome H1 loss affects DNA methylation and expression of selected imprinted genes in the endosperm. Yet, the extent to which H1 influences DME demethylation and gene imprinting in the Arabidopsis endosperm has not been investigated. Here, we showed that without the maternal linker histones, DME-mediated demethylation is facilitated, particularly in the heterochromatin regions, indicating that H1-bound heterochromatins are barriers for DME demethylation. Loss of H1 in the maternal genome has a very limited effect on gene transcription or gene imprinting regulation in the endosperm; however, it variably influences euchromatin TE methylation and causes a slight hypermethylation and a reduced expression in selected imprinted genes. We conclude that loss of maternal H1 indirectly influences DME-mediated demethylation and endosperm DNA methylation landscape but does not appear to affect endosperm genemore »transcription and overall imprinting regulation.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 22, 2023