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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2024
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  3. Materials that rectify light into current in their bulk are desired for optoelectronic applications. In Weyl semimetals that break inversion symmetry, bulk photocurrents may arise due to nonlinear optical processes that are enhanced near the Weyl nodes. However, the photoresponse of these materials is commonly studied by scanning photocurrent microscopy, which convolves the effects of photocurrent generation and collection. Here we directly image the photocurrent flow inside the type-II Weyl semimetals WTe2 and TaIrTe4 using high-sensitivity quantum magnetometry with nitrogen-vacancy centre spins. We elucidate a mechanism for bulk photocurrent generation, which we call the anisotropic photothermoelectric effect, where unequal thermopowers along different crystal axes drive intricate circulations of photocurrent around the photoexcitation. Using overlapping scanning photocurrent microscopy and magnetic imaging at the interior and edges of the sample, we visualize how the anisotropic photothermoelectric effect stimulates the long-range photocurrent collected in our WTe2 and TaIrTe4 devices through the Shockley–Ramo mechanism. Our results highlight a widely relevant source of current flow and will inspire photodetectors that utilize bulk materials with thermoelectric anisotropy.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 23, 2024
  4. The purpose of a routine bridge inspection is to assess the physical and functional condition of a bridge according to a regularly scheduled interval. The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) requires these inspections to be conducted at least every 2 years. Inspectors use simple tools and visual inspection techniques to determine the conditions of both the elements of the bridge structure and the bridge overall. While in the field, the data is collected in the form of images and notes; after the field work is complete, inspectors need to generate a report based on these data to document their findings. The report generation process includes several tasks: (1) evaluating the condition rating of each bridge element according to FHWA Recording and Coding Guide for Structure Inventory and Appraisal of the Nation’s Bridges; and (2) updating and organizing the bridge inspection images for the report. Both of tasks are time-consuming. This study focuses on assisting with the latter task by developing an artificial intelligence (AI)-based method to rapidly organize bridge inspection images and generate a report. In this paper, an image organization schema based on the FHWA Recording and Coding Guide for the Structure Inventory and Appraisal of the Nation’s Bridges and themore »Manual for Bridge Element Inspection is described, and several convolutional neural network-based classifiers are trained with real inspection images collected in the field. Additionally, exchangeable image file (EXIF) information is automatically extracted to organize inspection images according to their time stamp. Finally, the Automated Bridge Image Reporting Tool (ABIRT) is described as a browser-based system built on the trained classifiers. Inspectors can directly upload images to this tool and rapidly obtain organized images and associated inspection report with the support of a computer which has an internet connection. The authors provide recommendations to inspectors for gathering future images to make the best use of this tool.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2024
  5. Abstract

    Extreme weather poses a major challenge to global food security by causing sharp drops in crop yield and supply. International crop trade can potentially alleviate such challenge by reallocating crop commodities. However, the influence of extreme weather stress and synchronous crop yield anomalies on trade linkages among countries remains unexplored. Here we use the international wheat trade network, develop two network-based covariates (i.e., difference in extreme weather stress and short-term synchrony of yield fluctuations between countries), and test specialized statistical and machine-learning methods. We find that countries with larger differences in extreme weather stress and synchronous yield variations tend to be trade partners and with higher trade volumes, even after controlling for factors conventionally implemented in international trade models (e.g., production level and trade agreement). These findings highlight the need to improve the current international trade network by considering the patterns of extreme weather stress and yield synchrony among countries.

  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 3, 2023
  7. Abstract Protein synthesis is supported by cellular machineries that ensure polypeptides fold to their native conformation, whilst eliminating misfolded, aggregation prone species. Protein aggregation underlies pathologies including neurodegeneration. Aggregates’ formation is antagonised by molecular chaperones, with cytoplasmic machinery resolving insoluble protein aggregates. However, it is unknown whether an analogous disaggregation system exists in the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) where ~30% of the proteome is synthesised. Here we show that the ER of a variety of mammalian cell types, including neurons, is endowed with the capability to resolve protein aggregates under stress. Utilising a purpose-developed protein aggregation probing system with a sub-organellar resolution, we observe steady-state aggregate accumulation in the ER. Pharmacological induction of ER stress does not augment aggregates, but rather stimulate their clearance within hours. We show that this dissagregation activity is catalysed by the stress-responsive ER molecular chaperone – BiP. This work reveals a hitherto unknow, non-redundant strand of the proteostasis-restorative ER stress response.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  8. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2023
  9. Abstract

    Measurement of cell metabolism in moderate-throughput to high-throughput organ-on-chip (OOC) systems would expand the range of data collected for studying drug effects or disease in physiologically relevant tissue models. However, current measurement approaches rely on fluorescent imaging or colorimetric assays that are focused on endpoints, require labels or added substrates, and lack real-time data. Here, we integrated optical-based oxygen sensors in a high-throughput OOC platform and developed an approach for monitoring cell metabolic activity in an array of membrane bilayer devices. Each membrane bilayer device supported a culture of human renal proximal tubule epithelial cells on a porous membrane suspended between two microchannels and exposed to controlled, unidirectional perfusion and physiologically relevant shear stress for several days. For the first time, we measured changes in oxygen in a membrane bilayer format and used a finite element analysis model to estimate cell oxygen consumption rates (OCRs), allowing comparison with OCRs from other cell culture systems. Finally, we demonstrated label-free detection of metabolic shifts in human renal proximal tubule cells following exposure to FCCP, a drug known for increasing cell oxygen consumption, as well as oligomycin and antimycin A, drugs known for decreasing cell oxygen consumption. The capability to measure cellmore »OCRs and detect metabolic shifts in an array of membrane bilayer devices contained within an industry standard microtiter plate format will be valuable for analyzing flow-responsive and physiologically complex tissues during drug development and disease research.

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  10. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 6, 2023