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  1. This work in progress paper presents and motivates the design of a novel extended reality (XR) environment for artificial intelligence (AI) education, and presents its first implementation. The learner is seated at a table and wears an XR headset that allows them to see both the real world and a visualization of a neural network. The visualization is adjustable. The learner can inspect each layer, each neuron, and each connection. The learner can also choose a different input image, or create their own image to feed to the network. The inference is computed on the headset, in real time. The neural network configuration and its weights are loaded from an onnx file, which supports a variety of architectures as well as changing the weights to illustrate the training process. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 21, 2025
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  4. The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is a widespread numerical tool for full-wave analysis of electromagnetic fields in complex media and for detailed geometries. Applications of the FDTD method cover a range of time and spatial scales, extending from subatomic to galactic lengths and from classical to quantum physics. Technology areas that benefit from the FDTD method include biomedicine — bioimaging, biophotonics, bioelectronics and biosensors; geophysics — remote sensing, communications, space weather hazards and geolocation; metamaterials — sub-wavelength focusing lenses, electromagnetic cloaks and continuously scanning leaky-wave antennas; optics — diffractive optical elements, photonic bandgap structures, photonic crystal waveguides and ring-resonator devices; plasmonics — plasmonic waveguides and antennas; and quantum applications — quantum devices and quantum radar. This Primer summarizes the main features of the FDTD method, along with key extensions that enable accurate solutions to be obtained for different research questions. Additionally, hardware considerations are discussed, plus examples of how to extract magnitude and phase data, Brillouin diagrams and scattering parameters from the output of an FDTD model. The Primer ends with a discussion of ongoing challenges and opportunities to further enhance the FDTD method for current and future applications. 
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