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  1. Mobile Augmented Reality (AR) demands realistic rendering of virtual content that seamlessly blends into the physical environment. For this reason, AR headsets and recent smartphones are increasingly equipped with Time-of-Flight (ToF) cameras to acquire depth maps of a scene in real-time. ToF cameras are cheap and fast, however, they suffer from several issues that affect the quality of depth data, ultimately hampering their use for mobile AR. Among them, scale errors of virtual objects - appearing much bigger or smaller than what they should be - are particularly noticeable and unpleasant. This article specifically addresses these challenges by proposing InDepth,more »a real-time depth inpainting system based on edge computing. InDepth employs a novel deep neural network (DNN) architecture to improve the accuracy of depth maps obtained from ToF cameras. The DNN fills holes and corrects artifacts in the depth maps with high accuracy and eight times lower inference time than the state of the art. An extensive performance evaluation in real settings shows that InDepth reduces the mean absolute error by a factor of four with respect to ARCore DepthLab. Finally, a user study reveals that InDepth is effective in rendering correctly-scaled virtual objects, outperforming DepthLab.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023
  2. Abstract 316L stainless steel (316L SS) is a flagship material for structural applications in corrosive environments, having been extensively studied for decades for its favorable balance between mechanical and corrosion properties. More recently, 316L SS has also proven to have excellent printability when parts are produced with additive manufacturing techniques, notably laser powder bed fusion (LPBF). Because of the harsh thermo-mechanical cycles experienced during rapid solidification and cooling, LPBF processing tends to generate unique microstructures. Strong heterogeneities can be found inside grains, including trapped elements, nano-inclusions, and a high density of dislocations that form the so-called cellular structure. Interestingly, LPBFmore »316L SS not only exhibits better mechanical properties than its conventionally processed counterpart, but it also usually offers much higher resistance to pitting in chloride solutions. Unfortunately, the complexity of the LPBF microstructures, in addition to process-induced defects, such as porosity and surface roughness, have slowed progress toward linking specific microstructural features to corrosion susceptibility and complicated the development of calibrated simulations of pitting phenomena. The first part of this article is dedicated to an in-depth review of the microstructures found in LPBF 316L SS and their potential effects on the corrosion properties, with an emphasis on pitting resistance. The second part offers a perspective of some relevant modeling techniques available to simulate the corrosion of LPBF 316L SS, including current challenges that should be overcome.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023
  3. Mobile Augmented Reality (AR), which overlays digital content on the real-world scenes surrounding a user, is bringing immersive interactive experiences where the real and virtual worlds are tightly coupled. To enable seamless and precise AR experiences, an image recognition system that can accurately recognize the object in the camera view with low system latency is required. However, due to the pervasiveness and severity of image distortions, an effective and robust image recognition solution for “in the wild” mobile AR is still elusive. In this article, we present CollabAR, an edge-assisted system that provides distortion-tolerant image recognition for mobile AR withmore »imperceptible system latency. CollabAR incorporates both distortion-tolerant and collaborative image recognition modules in its design. The former enables distortion-adaptive image recognition to improve the robustness against image distortions, while the latter exploits the spatial-temporal correlation among mobile AR users to improve recognition accuracy. Moreover, as it is difficult to collect a large-scale image distortion dataset, we propose a Cycle-Consistent Generative Adversarial Network-based data augmentation method to synthesize realistic image distortion. Our evaluation demonstrates that CollabAR achieves over 85% recognition accuracy for “in the wild” images with severe distortions, while reducing the end-to-end system latency to as low as 18.2 ms.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2023
  4. Abstract Background Genes that belong to the same network are frequently co-expressed, but collectively, how the coordination of the whole transcriptome is perturbed during aging remains unclear. To explore this, we calculated the correlation of each gene in the transcriptome with every other, in the brain of young and older outbred deer mice (P. leucopus and P. maniculatus). Results In about 25 % of the genes, coordination was inversed during aging. Gene Ontology analysis in both species, for the genes that exhibited inverse transcriptomic coordination during aging pointed to alterations in the perception of smell, a known impairment occurring during aging.more »In P. leucopus, alterations in genes related to cholesterol metabolism were also identified. Among the genes that exhibited the most pronounced inversion in their coordination profiles during aging was THBS4, that encodes for thrombospondin-4, a protein that was recently identified as rejuvenation factor in mice. Relatively to its breadth, abolishment of coordination was more prominent in the long-living P. leucopus than in P. maniculatus but in the latter, the intensity of de-coordination was higher. Conclusions There sults suggest that aging is associated with more stringent retention of expression profiles for some genes and more abrupt changes in others, while more subtle but widespread changes in gene expression appear protective. Our findings shed light in the mode of the transcriptional changes occurring in the brain during aging and suggest that strategies aiming to broader but more modest changes in gene expression may be preferrable to correct aging-associated deregulation in gene expression.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022
  5. We explore how different elements of student persistence on computer programming problems may be related to learning outcomes and inform us about which elements may distinguish between productive and unproductive persistence. We collected data from an introductory computer science course at a large midwestern university in the U.S. hosted on an open-source, problem-driven learning system. We defined a set of features quantifying various aspect of persistence during problem solving and used a predictive modeling approach to predict student scores on subsequent and related quiz questions. We focused on careful feature engineering and model interpretation to shed light on the intricaciesmore »of both productive and unproductive persistence. Feature importance was analyzed using SHapley Additive exPlanations (SHAP) values. We found that the most impactful features were persisting until solving the problem, rapid guessing, and taking a break, while those with the strongest correlation between their values and their impact on prediction were the number of submissions, total time, and (again) taking a break. This suggests that the former are important features for accurate prediction, while the latter are indicative of the differences between productive persistence and wheel spinning in a computer science context.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 19, 2022
  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 24, 2022
  7. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022
  8. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 16, 2022
  9. Abstract

    This paper presents a bilinear log model, for predicting temperature-dependent ultimate strength of high-entropy alloys (HEAs) based on 21 HEA compositions. We consider the break temperature,Tbreak, introduced in the model, an important parameter for design of materials with attractive high-temperature properties, one warranting inclusion in alloy specifications. For reliable operation, the operating temperature of alloys may need to stay belowTbreak. We introduce a technique of global optimization, one enabling concurrent optimization of model parameters over low-temperature and high-temperature regimes. Furthermore, we suggest a general framework for joint optimization of alloy properties, capable of accounting for physics-based dependencies, and showmore »how a special case can be formulated to address the identification of HEAs offering attractive ultimate strength. We advocate for the selection of an optimization technique suitable for the problem at hand and the data available, and for properly accounting for the underlying sources of variations.

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  10. Protein transfer into nanoscale compartments is critical for many cellular/life processes, yet there are few reports on how compartment properties impact the protein orientation during a transfer. Such a knowledge gap limits a deeper understanding of the protein transfer mechanism, which could be bridged using nanoporous materials. Here, we use a mesoporous silica, a covalent organic framework, and a metal-organic framework with charged, hydrophobic, and neutral surfaces, respectively, to elucidate the impact of channel properties on the transfer of a model protein, lysozyme. Using site-directed spin labeling and time-resolved electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, we reveal that the transfer can bemore »a multi-step process depending on channel properties and depict the relative orientation changes of lysozyme upon transfer into each channel. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first structural insight into protein orientation upon transfer into different compartments, meaningful for the rational design of synthetic materials to host enzymes or mimic the cellular compartments.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 22, 2022