skip to main content

Search for: All records

Creators/Authors contains: "Zhang, Yong-Jiang"

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. Abstract

    A photochemical model of photosynthetic electron transport (PET) is needed to integrate photophysics, photochemistry, and biochemistry to determine redox conditions of electron carriers and enzymes for plant stress assessment and mechanistically link sun‐induced chlorophyll fluorescence to carbon assimilation for remotely sensing photosynthesis. Towards this goal, we derived photochemical equations governing the states and redox reactions of complexes and electron carriers along the PET chain. These equations allow the redox conditions of the mobile plastoquinone pool and the cytochrome b6f complex (Cyt) to be inferred with typical fluorometry. The equations agreed well with fluorometry measurements from diverse C3/C4species across environments in the relationship between the PET rate and fraction of open photosystem II reaction centres. We found the oxidation of plastoquinol by Cyt is the bottleneck of PET, and genetically improving the oxidation of plastoquinol by Cyt may enhance the efficiency of PET and photosynthesis across species. Redox reactions and photochemical and biochemical interactions are highly redundant in their complex controls of PET. Although individual reaction rate constants cannot be resolved, they appear in parameter groups which can be collectively inferred with fluorometry measurements for broad applications. The new photochemical model developed enables advances in different fronts of photosynthesis research.

    more » « less
  2. Wild blueberries in Maine, USA are facing threats from our changing climate. While summer climate variations have been affecting this important commercial crop directly, significant climate variations in other seasons also can be potentially detrimental to blueberry production. Therefore, we analyzed annual and seasonal climate trends (temperature, rainfall, snow cover) over the past 41 years (1980–2020) for seven Maine counties (Piscataquis, Washington, Hancock, Knox, Lincoln, Kennebec, York) with large wild blueberry areas. We found that, across all blueberry production fields (or “barrens”), historical temperatures increased significantly (p < 0.05) in the fall and winter followed by summer, but not in the spring. Additionally, precipitation increased slightly (0.5–1.2 mm/year) in the winter and fall, whereas no changes were found in the spring and summer. Furthermore, we found that historical temperatures were lower in Piscataquis (north-central) and Washington (north-east) counties, whereas in south-western counties (Hancock to York) experienced a relatively warmer climate. The rate of increasing temperature was comparatively slower in the warmer barrens located towards the south-west (Hancock to York). Moreover, the growing season lengthened towards the fall season consistently in all locations, whereas lengthening towards the spring was inconsistent. These findings inform the wild blueberry growers in different locations of Maine about the seasonal shifts occurring for their crop. This knowledge may assist with land management planning in order for the growers to prepare for future impacts. 
    more » « less
  3. Abstract

    Within vascular plants, the partitioning of hydraulic resistance along the soil‐to‐leaf continuum affects transpiration and its response to environmental conditions. In trees, the fractional contribution of leaf hydraulic resistance (Rleaf) to total soil‐to‐leaf hydraulic resistance (Rtotal), or fRleaf(=Rleaf/Rtotal), is thought to be large, but this has not been tested comprehensively. We compiled a multibiome data set of fRleafusing new and previously published measurements of pressure differences within trees in situ. Across 80 samples, fRleafaveraged 0.51 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.46−0.57) and it declined with tree height. We also used the allometric relationship between field‐based measurements of soil‐to‐leaf hydraulic conductance and laboratory‐based measurements of leaf hydraulic conductance to compute the average fRleaffor 19 tree samples, which was 0.40 (95% CI = 0.29−0.56). The in situ technique produces a more accurate descriptor of fRleafbecause it accounts for dynamic leaf hydraulic conductance. Both approaches demonstrate the outsized role of leaves in controlling tree hydrodynamics. A larger fRleafmay help stems from loss of hydraulic conductance. Thus, the decline in fRleafwith tree height would contribute to greater drought vulnerability in taller trees and potentially to their observed disproportionate drought mortality.

    more » « less
  4. Summary

    The hydraulic system of vascular plants and its integrity is essential for plant survival. To transport water under tension, the walls of xylem conduits must approximate rigid pipes. Against this expectation, conduit deformation has been reported in the leaves of a few species and hypothesized to function as a ‘circuit breaker’ against embolism. Experimental evidence is lacking, and its generality is unknown.

    We demonstrated the role of conduit deformation in protecting the upstream xylem from embolism through experiments on three species and surveyed a diverse selection of vascular plants for conduit deformation in leaves.

    Conduit deformation in minor veins occurred before embolism during slow dehydration. When leaves were exposed to transient increases in transpiration, conduit deformation was accompanied by large water potential differences from leaf to stem and minimal embolism in the upstream xylem. In the three species tested, collapsible vein endings provided clear protection of upstream xylem from embolism during transient increases in transpiration.

    We found conduit deformation in diverse vascular plants, including 11 eudicots, ginkgo, a cycad, a fern, a bamboo, and a grass species, but not in two bamboo and a palm species, demonstrating that the potential for ‘circuit breaker’ functionality may be widespread across vascular plants.

    more » « less