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  1. Natural organic materials such as protein and carbohydrates are abundant in nature, renewable, and biodegradable, desirable for the construction of artificial synaptic devices for emerging neuromorphic computing systems with energy efficient operation and environmentally friendly disposal. These artificial synaptic devices are based on memristors or transistors with the memristive layer or gate dielectric formed by natural organic materials. The fundamental requirement for these synaptic devices is the ability to mimic the memory and learning behaviors of biological synapses. This paper reviews the synaptic functions emulated by a variety of artificial synaptic devices based on natural organic materials and provides a useful guidance for testing and investigating more of such devices.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2024
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  5. Abstract In this paper, natural organic honey embedded with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was studied as a resistive switching material for biodegradable nonvolatile memory in emerging neuromorphic systems. CNTs were dispersed in a honey-water solution with the concentration of 0.2 wt% CNT and 30 wt% honey. The final honey-CNT-water mixture was spin-coated and dried into a thin film sandwiched in between Cu bottom electrode and Al top electrode to form a honey-CNT based resistive switching memory (RSM). Surface morphology, electrical characteristics and current conduction mechanism were investigated. The results show that although CNTs formed agglomerations in the dried honey-CNT film, both switching speed and the stability in SET and RESET process of honey-CNT RSM were improved. The mechanism of current conduction in CNT is governed by Ohm’s law in low-resistance state and the low-voltage range in high-resistance state, but transits to the space charge limited conduction at high voltages approaching the SET voltage.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 20, 2023
  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2023
  7. Abstract Spiking neural network (SNN) in future neuromorphic architectures requires hardware devices to be not only capable of emulating fundamental functionalities of biological synapse such as spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP) and spike-rate dependent plasticity (SRDP), but also biodegradable to address current ecological challenges of electronic waste. Among different device technologies and materials, memristive synaptic devices based on natural organic materials have emerged as the favourable candidate to meet these demands. The metal–insulator-metal structure is analogous to biological synapse with low power consumption, fast switching speed and simulation of synaptic plasticity, while natural organic materials are water soluble, renewable and environmental friendly. In this study, the potential of a natural organic material—honey-based memristor for SNNs was demonstrated. The device exhibited forming-free bipolar resistive switching, a high switching speed of 100 ns set time and 500 ns reset time, STDP and SRDP learning behaviours, and dissolving in water. The intuitive conduction models for STDP and SRDP were proposed. These results testified that honey-based memristive synaptic devices are promising for SNN implementation in green electronics and biodegradable neuromorphic systems.
  8. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023