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Creators/Authors contains: "Zhao, H."

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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
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  4. Algorithmic decisions made by machine learning models in high-stakes domains may have lasting impacts over time. However, naive applications of standard fairness criterion in static settings over temporal domains may lead to delayed and adverse effects. To understand the dynamics of performance disparity, we study a fairness problem in Markov decision processes (MDPs). Specifically, we propose return parity, a fairness notion that requires MDPs from different demographic groups that share the same state and action spaces to achieve approximately the same expected time-discounted rewards. We first provide a decomposition theorem for return disparity, which decomposes the return disparity of any two MDPs sharing the same state and action spaces into the distance between group-wise reward functions, the discrepancy of group policies, and the discrepancy between state visitation distributions induced by the group policies. Motivated by our decomposition theorem, we propose algorithms to mitigate return disparity via learning a shared group policy with state visitation distributional alignment using integral probability metrics. We conduct experiments to corroborate our results, showing that the proposed algorithm can successfully close the disparity gap while maintaining the performance of policies on two real-world recommender system benchmark datasets.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 28, 2023
  5. While the advent of Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) has greatly improved node and graph representation learning in many applications, the neighborhood aggregation scheme exposes additional vulnerabilities to adversaries seeking to extract node-level information about sensitive attributes. In this paper, we study the problem of protecting sensitive attributes by information obfuscation when learning with graph structured data. We propose a framework to locally filter out pre-determined sensitive attributes via adversarial training with the total variation and the Wasserstein distance. Our method creates a strong defense against inference attacks, while only suffering small loss in task performance. Theoretically, we analyze the effectiveness of our framework against a worst-case adversary, and characterize an inherent trade-off between maximizing predictive accuracy and minimizing information leakage. Experiments across multiple datasets from recommender systems, knowledge graphs and quantum chemistry demonstrate that the proposed approach provides a robust defense across various graph structures and tasks, while producing competitive GNN encoders for downstream tasks.