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  1. Understanding factors affecting tooth wear in primates is of interest because as teeth wear, their chewing efficiency can change—in some species positively and in others negatively. It is well known that teeth wear with age, but relationships between sex and tooth wear and between body size and tooth wear are less well understood. Here we analyze molar wear scores from a cross-sectional sample of 212 Cayo Santiago rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) adults examined in 1985. Because males are generally larger than females—potentially processing more food over their lifetimes—we hypothesized that with age included in an ordinal logistic regression model, malesmore »would exhibit significantly greater wear than females. We further hypothesized that males of larger body mass would exhibit greater wear than males of smaller body mass. Finally, because many of the females were pregnant or lactating at the time of dental examination, we hypothesized that there would be no relationship between body mass and wear in females. We found that with age included in ordinal logistic regression models, males had significantly more worn molars than females, larger males had more worn molars than smaller males, and that for females, molar wear was not significantly related to body mass. These results suggest that over the life course, animals with larger body sizes (males vs. females and larger vs. smaller males) may accumulate more wear than those with smaller body sizes. Future analyses to be conducted on the Cayo Santiago monkeys’ skeletal remains will further evaluate this possibility.« less
  2. Among the many Callinectes spp. across the western Atlantic, the blue crab C. sapidus has the broadest latitudinal distribution, encompassing both tropical and temperate climates. Its life history varies latitudinally, from extended overwintering at high latitudes to year-round activity in tropical locations. Callinectes sapidus reovirus 1 (CsRV1) is a pathogenic virus first described in North Atlantic C. sapidus and has recently been detected in southern Brazil. Little information exists about CsRV1 prevalence at intervening latitudes or in overwintering blue crabs. Using a quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) method, this study investigated CsRV1 prevalence in C. sapidus across latitudinal differences inmore »temperature and crab life history, as well as in additional Callinectes spp. and within overwintering C. sapidus . CsRV1 prevalence in C. sapidus was significantly correlated with high water temperature and blue crab winter dormancy. Prevalence of CsRV1 in C. sapidus on the mid-Atlantic coast was significantly lower in winter than in summer. CsRV1 infections were not detected in other Callinectes spp. These findings revealed that CsRV1 is present in C. sapidus across their range, but not in other Callinectes species, with prevalence associated with temperature and host life history. Such information helps us to better understand the underlying mechanisms that drive marine virus dynamics under changing environmental conditions.« less
  3. Whispering-gallery-mode optical microresonators have found impactful applications in various areas due to their remarkable properties such as ultra-high quality factor (Q-factor), small mode volume, and strong evanescent field. Among these applications, controllable tuning of the optical Q-factor is vital for on-chip optical modulation and various opto-electronic devices. Here, we report an experimental demonstration with a hybrid structure formed by an ultra-high-Q microtoroid cavity and a graphene monolayer. Thanks to the strong interaction of the evanescent wave with the graphene, the structure allows the Q-factor to be controllably varied in the range of 3.9 × 105 ∼ 6.2 × 107 bymore »engineering optical absorption via changing the gap distance in between. At the same time, a resonant wavelength shift of 32 pm was also observed. Besides, the scheme enables us to approach the critical coupling with a coupling depth of 99.6%. As potential applications in integrated opto-electronic devices, we further use the system to realize a tunable optical filter with tunable bandwidth from 116.5 MHz to 2.2 GHz as well as an optical switch with a maximal extinction ratio of 31 dB and response time of 21 ms.« less
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023