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  1. Twisted interfaces between stacked van der Waals (vdW) cuprate crystals present a platform for engineering superconducting order parameters by adjusting stacking angles. Using a cryogenic assembly technique, we construct twisted vdW Josephson junctions (JJs) at atomically sharp interfaces between Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+xcrystals, with quality approaching the limit set by intrinsic JJs. Near 45° twist angle, we observe fractional Shapiro steps and Fraunhofer patterns, consistent with the existence of two degenerate Josephson ground states related by time-reversal symmetry (TRS). By programming the JJ current bias sequence, we controllably break TRS to place the JJ into either of the two ground states, realizing reversible Josephson diodes without external magnetic fields. Our results open a path to engineering topological devices at higher temperatures.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 22, 2024
  2. Abstract Differentiable rendering of translucent objects with respect to their shapes has been a long‐standing problem. State‐of‐the‐art methods require detecting object silhouettes or specifying change rates inside translucent objects—both of which can be expensive for translucent objects with complex shapes. In this paper, we address this problem for translucent objects with no refractive or reflective boundaries. By reparameterizing interior components of differential path integrals, our new formulation does not require change rates to be specified in the interior of objects. Further, we introduce new Monte Carlo estimators based on this formulation that do not require explicit detection of object silhouettes. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 9, 2024
  4. Abstract

    Mathematically representing the shape of an object is a key ingredient for solving inverse rendering problems. Explicit representations like meshes are efficient to render in a differentiable fashion but have difficulties handling topology changes. Implicit representations like signed‐distance functions, on the other hand, offer better support of topology changes but are much more difficult to use for physics‐based differentiable rendering. We introduce a new physics‐based inverse rendering pipeline that uses both implicit and explicit representations. Our technique enjoys the benefit of both representations by supporting both topology changes and differentiable rendering of complex effects such as environmental illumination, soft shadows, and interreflection. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our technique using several synthetic and real examples.

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  5. null (Ed.)
    For energy-efficient Connected and Automated Vehicle (CAV) Eco-driving control on signalized arterials under uncertain traffic conditions, this paper explicitly considers traffic control devices (e.g., road markings, traffic signs, and traffic signals) and road geometry (e.g., road shapes, road boundaries, and road grades) constraints in a data-driven optimization-based Model Predictive Control (MPC) modeling framework. This modeling framework uses real-time vehicle driving and traffic signal data via Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) and Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) communications. In the MPC-based control model, this paper mathematically formulates location-based traffic control devices and road geometry constraints using the geographic information from High-Definition (HD) maps. The location-based traffic control devices and road geometry constraints have the potential to improve the safety, energy, efficiency, driving comfort, and robustness of connected and automated driving on real roads by considering interrupted flow facility locations and road geometry in the formulation. We predict a set of uncertain driving states for the preceding vehicles through an online learning-based driving dynamics prediction model. We then solve a constrained finite-horizon optimal control problem with the predicted driving states to obtain a set of Eco-driving references for the controlled vehicle. To obtain the optimal acceleration or deceleration commands for the controlled vehicle with the set of Eco-driving references, we formulate a Distributionally Robust Stochastic Optimization (DRSO) model (i.e., a special case of data-driven optimization models under moment bounds) with Distributionally Robust Chance Constraints (DRCC) with location-based traffic control devices and road geometry constraints. We design experiments to demonstrate the proposed model under different traffic conditions using real-world connected vehicle trajectory data and Signal Phasing and Timing (SPaT) data on a coordinated arterial with six actuated intersections on Fuller Road in Ann Arbor, Michigan from the Safety Pilot Model Deployment (SPMD) project. 
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  6. Motivated by connected and automated vehicle (CAV) technologies, this paper proposes a data-driven optimization-based Model Predictive Control (MPC) modeling framework for the Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) of a string of CAVs under uncertain traffic conditions. The proposed data-driven optimization-based MPC modeling framework aims to improve the stability, robustness, and safety of longitudinal cooperative automated driving involving a string of CAVs under uncertain traffic conditions using Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) data. Based on an online learning-based driving dynamics prediction model, we predict the uncertain driving states of the vehicles preceding the controlled CAVs. With the predicted driving states of the preceding vehicles, we solve a constrained Finite-Horizon Optimal Control problem to predict the uncertain driving states of the controlled CAVs. To obtain the optimal acceleration or deceleration commands for the CAVs under uncertainties, we formulate a Distributionally Robust Stochastic Optimization (DRSO) model (i.e. a special case of data-driven optimization models under moment bounds) with a Distributionally Robust Chance Constraint (DRCC). The predicted uncertain driving states of the immediately preceding vehicles and the controlled CAVs will be utilized in the safety constraint and the reference driving states of the DRSO-DRCC model. To solve the minimax program of the DRSO-DRCC model, we reformulate the relaxed dual problem as a Semidefinite Program (SDP) of the original DRSO-DRCC model based on the strong duality theory and the Semidefinite Relaxation technique. In addition, we propose two methods for solving the relaxed SDP problem. We use Next Generation Simulation (NGSIM) data to demonstrate the proposed model in numerical experiments. The experimental results and analyses demonstrate that the proposed model can obtain string-stable, robust, and safe longitudinal cooperative automated driving control of CAVs by proper settings, including the driving-dynamics prediction model, prediction horizon lengths, and time headways. Computational analyses are conducted to validate the efficiency of the proposed methods for solving the DRSO-DRCC model for real-time automated driving applications within proper settings. 
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  7. null (Ed.)
  8. Students acquire knowledge as they interact with a variety of learning materials, such as video lectures, problems, and discussions. Modeling student knowledge at each point during their learning period and understanding the contribution of each learning material to student knowledge are essential for detecting students’ knowledge gaps and recommending learning materials to them. Current student knowledge modeling techniques mostly rely on one type of learning material, mainly problems, to model student knowledge growth. These approaches ignore the fact that students also learn from other types of material. In this paper, we propose a student knowledge model that can capture knowledge growth as a result of learning from a diverse set of learning resource types while unveiling the association between the learning materials of different types. Our multi-view knowledge model (MVKM) incorporates a flexible knowledge increase objective on top of a multi-view tensor factorization to capture occasional forgetting while representing student knowledge and learning material concepts in a lower-dimensional latent space. We evaluate our model in different experiments to show that it can accurately predict students’ future performance, differentiate between knowledge gain in different student groups and concepts, and unveil hidden similarities across learning materials of different types. 
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