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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2022
  2. For energy-efficient Connected and Automated Vehicle (CAV) Eco-driving control on signalized arterials under uncertain traffic conditions, this paper explicitly considers traffic control devices (e.g., road markings, traffic signs, and traffic signals) and road geometry (e.g., road shapes, road boundaries, and road grades) constraints in a data-driven optimization-based Model Predictive Control (MPC) modeling framework. This modeling framework uses real-time vehicle driving and traffic signal data via Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) and Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) communications. In the MPC-based control model, this paper mathematically formulates location-based traffic control devices and road geometry constraints using the geographic information from High-Definition (HD) maps. The location-based traffic controlmore »devices and road geometry constraints have the potential to improve the safety, energy, efficiency, driving comfort, and robustness of connected and automated driving on real roads by considering interrupted flow facility locations and road geometry in the formulation. We predict a set of uncertain driving states for the preceding vehicles through an online learning-based driving dynamics prediction model. We then solve a constrained finite-horizon optimal control problem with the predicted driving states to obtain a set of Eco-driving references for the controlled vehicle. To obtain the optimal acceleration or deceleration commands for the controlled vehicle with the set of Eco-driving references, we formulate a Distributionally Robust Stochastic Optimization (DRSO) model (i.e., a special case of data-driven optimization models under moment bounds) with Distributionally Robust Chance Constraints (DRCC) with location-based traffic control devices and road geometry constraints. We design experiments to demonstrate the proposed model under different traffic conditions using real-world connected vehicle trajectory data and Signal Phasing and Timing (SPaT) data on a coordinated arterial with six actuated intersections on Fuller Road in Ann Arbor, Michigan from the Safety Pilot Model Deployment (SPMD) project.« less
  3. An adaptive learning algorithm coupled with 3D momentum-based feedback is used to identify intense laser pulse shapes that control H 3 + formation from ethane. Specifically, we controlled the ratio of D 2 H + to D 3 + produced from the D 3 C-CH 3 isotopologue of ethane, which selects between trihydrogen cations formed from atoms on one or both sides of ethane. We are able to modify the D 2 H + : D 3 + ratio by a factor of up to three. In addition, two-dimensional scans of linear chirp and third-order dispersion are conducted for amore »few fourth-order dispersion values while the D 2 H + and D 3 + production rates are monitored. The optimized pulse is observed to influence the yield, kinetic energy release, and angular distribution of the D 2 H + ions while the D 3 + ion dynamics remain relatively stable. We subsequently conducted COLTRIMS experiments on C 2 D 6 to complement the velocity map imaging data obtained during the control experiments and measured the branching ratio of two-body double ionization. Two-body D 3 + + C 2 D 3 + is the dominant final channel containing D 3 + ions, although the three-body D + D 3 + + C 2 D 2 + final state is also observed.« less
  4. Motivated by connected and automated vehicle (CAV) technologies, this paper proposes a data-driven optimization-based Model Predictive Control (MPC) modeling framework for the Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) of a string of CAVs under uncertain traffic conditions. The proposed data-driven optimization-based MPC modeling framework aims to improve the stability, robustness, and safety of longitudinal cooperative automated driving involving a string of CAVs under uncertain traffic conditions using Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) data. Based on an online learning-based driving dynamics prediction model, we predict the uncertain driving states of the vehicles preceding the controlled CAVs. With the predicted driving states of the preceding vehicles,more »we solve a constrained Finite-Horizon Optimal Control problem to predict the uncertain driving states of the controlled CAVs. To obtain the optimal acceleration or deceleration commands for the CAVs under uncertainties, we formulate a Distributionally Robust Stochastic Optimization (DRSO) model (i.e. a special case of data-driven optimization models under moment bounds) with a Distributionally Robust Chance Constraint (DRCC). The predicted uncertain driving states of the immediately preceding vehicles and the controlled CAVs will be utilized in the safety constraint and the reference driving states of the DRSO-DRCC model. To solve the minimax program of the DRSO-DRCC model, we reformulate the relaxed dual problem as a Semidefinite Program (SDP) of the original DRSO-DRCC model based on the strong duality theory and the Semidefinite Relaxation technique. In addition, we propose two methods for solving the relaxed SDP problem. We use Next Generation Simulation (NGSIM) data to demonstrate the proposed model in numerical experiments. The experimental results and analyses demonstrate that the proposed model can obtain string-stable, robust, and safe longitudinal cooperative automated driving control of CAVs by proper settings, including the driving-dynamics prediction model, prediction horizon lengths, and time headways. Computational analyses are conducted to validate the efficiency of the proposed methods for solving the DRSO-DRCC model for real-time automated driving applications within proper settings.« less
  5. Students acquire knowledge as they interact with a variety of learning materials, such as video lectures, problems, and discussions. Modeling student knowledge at each point during their learning period and understanding the contribution of each learning material to student knowledge are essential for detecting students’ knowledge gaps and recommending learning materials to them. Current student knowledge modeling techniques mostly rely on one type of learning material, mainly problems, to model student knowledge growth. These approaches ignore the fact that students also learn from other types of material. In this paper, we propose a student knowledge model that can capture knowledgemore »growth as a result of learning from a diverse set of learning resource types while unveiling the association between the learning materials of different types. Our multi-view knowledge model (MVKM) incorporates a flexible knowledge increase objective on top of a multi-view tensor factorization to capture occasional forgetting while representing student knowledge and learning material concepts in a lower-dimensional latent space. We evaluate our model in different experiments to show that it can accurately predict students’ future performance, differentiate between knowledge gain in different student groups and concepts, and unveil hidden similarities across learning materials of different types.« less
  6. Simulation-to-real domain adaptation for semantic segmentation has been actively studied for various applications such as autonomous driving. Existing methods mainly focus on a single-source setting, which cannot easily handle a more practical scenario of multiple sources with different distributions. In this paper, we propose to investigate multi-source domain adaptation for semantic segmentation. Specifically, we design a novel framework, termed Multi-source Adversarial Domain Aggregation Network (MADAN), which can be trained in an end-to-end manner. First, we generate an adapted domain for each source with dynamic semantic consistency while aligning at the pixel-level cycle-consistently towards the target. Second, we propose sub-domain aggregationmore »discriminator and cross-domain cycle discriminator to make different adapted domains more closely aggregated. Finally, feature-level alignment is performed between the aggregated domain and target domain while training the segmentation network. Extensive experiments from synthetic GTA and SYNTHIA to real Cityscapes and BDDS datasets demonstrate that the proposed MADAN model outperforms state-of-the-art approaches. Our source code is released at: https://github.com/Luodian/MADAN.« less
  7. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2022