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  1. Abstract

    Large-scale multiple perturbation experiments have the potential to reveal a more detailed understanding of the molecular pathways that respond to genetic and environmental changes. A key question in these studies is which gene expression changes are important for the response to the perturbation. This problem is challenging because (i) the functional form of the nonlinear relationship between gene expression and the perturbation is unknown and (ii) identification of the most important genes is a high-dimensional variable selection problem. To deal with these challenges, we present here a method based on the model-X knockoffs framework and Deep Neural Networks to identify significant gene expression changes in multiple perturbation experiments. This approach makes no assumptions on the functional form of the dependence between the responses and the perturbations and it enjoys finite sample false discovery rate control for the selected set of important gene expression responses. We apply this approach to the Library of Integrated Network-Based Cellular Signature data sets which is a National Institutes of Health Common Fund program that catalogs how human cells globally respond to chemical, genetic and disease perturbations. We identified important genes whose expression is directly modulated in response to perturbation with anthracycline, vorinostat, trichostatin-a, geldanamycin and sirolimus. We compare the set of important genes that respond to these small molecules to identify co-responsive pathways. Identification of which genes respond to specific perturbation stressors can provide better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of disease and advance the identification of new drug targets.

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  2. Abstract

    The versatile nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway initiates as the XPC–RAD23B–CETN2 complex first recognizes DNA lesions from the genomic DNA and recruits the general transcription factor complex, TFIIH, for subsequent lesion verification. Here, we present a cryo-EM structure of an NER initiation complex containing Rad4–Rad23-Rad33 (yeast homologue of XPC–RAD23B–CETN2) and 7-subunit coreTFIIH assembled on a carcinogen-DNA adduct lesion at 3.9–9.2 Å resolution. A ~30-bp DNA duplex could be mapped as it straddles between Rad4 and the Ssl2 (XPB) subunit of TFIIH on the 3' and 5' side of the lesion, respectively. The simultaneous binding with Rad4 and TFIIH was permitted by an unwinding of DNA at the lesion. Translocation coupled with torque generation by Ssl2 and Rad4 would extend the DNA unwinding at the lesion and deliver the damaged strand to Rad3 (XPD) in an open form suitable for subsequent lesion scanning and verification.

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  3. Background: Relationships between bio-entities (genes, proteins, diseases, etc.) constitute a significant part of our knowledge. Most of this information is documented as unstructured text in different forms, such as books, articles and on-line pages. Automatic extraction of such information and storing it in structured form could help researchers more easily access such information and also make it possible to incorporate it in advanced integrative analysis. In this study, we developed a novel approach to extract bio-entity relationships information using Nature Language Processing (NLP) and a graph-theoretic algorithm. Methods: Our method, called GRGT (Grammatical Relationship Graph for Triplets), not only extracts the pairs of terms that have certain relationships, but also extracts the type of relationship (the word describing the relationships). In addition, the directionality of the relationship can also be extracted. Our method is based on the assumption that a triplet exists for a pair of interactions. A triplet is defined as two terms (entities) and an interaction word describing the relationship of the two terms in a sentence. We first use a sentence parsing tool to obtain the sentence structure represented as a dependency graph where words are nodes and edges are typed dependencies. The shortest paths among the pairs of words in the triplet are then extracted, which form the basis for our information extraction method. Flexible pattern matching scheme was then used to match a triplet graph with unknown relationship to those triplet graphs with labels (True or False) in the database. Results: We applied the method on three benchmark datasets to extract the protein-protein-interactions (PPIs), and obtained better precision than the top performing methods in literature. Conclusions: We have developed a method to extract the protein-protein interactions from biomedical literature. PPIs extracted by our method have higher precision among other methods, suggesting that our method can be used to effectively extract PPIs and deposit them into databases. Beyond extracting PPIs, our method could be easily extended to extracting relationship information between other bio-entities. 
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  4. A significant part of our knowledge is relationships between two terms. However, most of these information is documented as unstructured text in various forms, like books, online articles and webpages. Extract those information and store them in a structured database could help people utilize these information more conveniently. In this study, we proposed a novel approach to extract the relationships information based on Nature Language Processing (NLP) and graph theoretic algorithm. Our method, Grammatical Relationship Graph for Triplets (GRGT), extracts three layers of information: the pairs of terms that have certain relationship, exactly what type of the relationship is, and what direct this relationship is. GRGT works on a grammatical graph obtained by parsed the sentence using Natural Language Processing. Patterns were extracted from the graph by shortest path among the words of interests. We have designed a decision tree to make the pattern matching. GRGT was applied to extract the protein-protein-interactions (PPIs) from biomedical literature, and obtained better precision than the best performing method in literature. Beyond extracting PPIs, our method could be easily extended to extracting relationship information between other bioentities. 
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