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Creators/Authors contains: "Zhao, Xuning"

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  4. Recent studies indicate that cavitation may play a vital role in laser lithotripsy. However, the underlying bubble dynamics and associated damage mechanisms are largely unknown. In this study, we use ultra-high-speed shadowgraph imaging, hydrophone measurements, three-dimensional passive cavitation mapping (3D-PCM), and phantom test to investigate the transient dynamics of vapor bubbles induced by a holmium:yttrium aluminum garnet laser and their correlation with solid damage. We vary the standoff distance ( SD) between the fiber tip and solid boundary under parallel fiber alignment and observe several distinctive features in bubble dynamics. First, long pulsed laser irradiation and solid boundary interaction create an elongated “pear-shaped” bubble that collapses asymmetrically and forms multiple jets in sequence. Second, unlike nanosecond laser-induced cavitation bubbles, jet impact on solid boundary generates negligible pressure transients and causes no direct damage. A non-circular toroidal bubble forms, particularly following the primary and secondary bubble collapses at SD = 1.0 and 3.0 mm, respectively. We observe three intensified bubble collapses with strong shock wave emissions: the intensified bubble collapse by shock wave, the ensuing reflected shock wave from the solid boundary, and self-intensified collapse of an inverted “triangle-shaped” or “horseshoe-shaped” bubble. Third, high-speed shadowgraph imaging and 3D-PCM confirm that the shock origins from the distinctive bubble collapse form either two discrete spots or a “smiling-face” shape. The spatial collapse pattern is consistent with the similar BegoStone surface damage, suggesting that the shockwave emissions during the intensified asymmetric collapse of the pear-shaped bubble are decisive for the solid damage. 
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  5. null (Ed.)
    Abstract

    Shock waves from underwater and air explosions are significant threats to surface and underwater vehicles and structures. Recent studies on the mechanical and thermal properties of various phase-separated elastomers indicate the possibility of applying these materials as a coating to mitigate shock-induced structural failures. To demonstrate this approach and investigate its efficacy, this paper presents a fluid-structure coupled computational model capable of predicting the dynamic response of air-backed bilayer (i.e. elastomer coating – metal substrate) structures submerged in water to hydrostatic and underwater explosion loads. The model couples a three-dimensional multiphase finite volume computational fluid dynamics model with a nonlinear finite element computational solid dynamics model using the FIVER (FInite Volume method with Exact multi-material Riemann solvers) method. The kinematic boundary condition at the fluid-structure interface is enforced using an embedded boundary method that is capable of handling large structural deformation and topological changes. The dynamic interface condition is enforced by formulating and solving local, one-dimensional fluid-solid Riemann problems, which is well-suited for transferring shock and impulsive loads. The capability of this computational model is demonstrated through a numerical investigation of hydrostatic and shock-induced collapse of aluminum tubes with polyurea coating on its inner surface. The thickness of the structure is resolved explicitly by the finite element mesh. The nonlinear material behavior of polyurea is accounted for using a hyper-viscoelastic constitutive model featuring a modified Mooney-Rivlin equation and a stress relaxation function in the form of prony series. Three numerical experiments are conducted to simulate and compare the collapse of the structure in different loading conditions, including a constant pressure, a fluid environment initially in hydrostatic equilibrium, and a two-phase fluid flow created by a near-field underwater explosion.

     
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