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  1. Monocular depth predictors are typically trained on large-scale training sets which are naturally biased w.r.t the distribution of camera poses. As a result, trained predic- tors fail to make reliable depth predictions for testing exam- ples captured under uncommon camera poses. To address this issue, we propose two novel techniques that exploit the camera pose during training and prediction. First, we in- troduce a simple perspective-aware data augmentation that synthesizes new training examples with more diverse views by perturbing the existing ones in a geometrically consis- tent manner. Second, we propose a conditional model that exploits the per-image camera posemore »as prior knowledge by encoding it as a part of the input. We show that jointly ap- plying the two methods improves depth prediction on im- ages captured under uncommon and even never-before-seen camera poses. We show that our methods improve perfor- mance when applied to a range of different predictor ar- chitectures. Lastly, we show that explicitly encoding the camera pose distribution improves the generalization per- formance of a synthetically trained depth predictor when evaluated on real images.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 19, 2022
  2. Abstract Irritable bowel syndrome afflicts 10–20% of the global population, causing visceral pain with increased sensitivity to colorectal distension and normal bowel movements. Understanding and predicting these biomechanics will further advance our understanding of visceral pain and complement the existing literature on visceral neurophysiology. We recently performed a series of experiments at three longitudinal segments (colonic, intermediate, and rectal) of the distal 30 mm of colorectums of mice. We also established and fitted constitutive models addressing mechanical heterogeneity in both the through-thickness and longitudinal directions of the colorectum. Afferent nerve endings, strategically located within the submucosa, are likely nociceptors that detectmore »concentrations of mechanical stresses to evoke the perception of pain from the viscera. In this study, we aim to: (1) establish and validate a method for incorporating residual stresses into models of colorectums, (2) predict the effects of residual stresses on the intratissue mechanics within the colorectum, and (3) establish intratissue distributions of stretches and stresses within the colorectum in vivo. To these ends we developed two-layered, composite finite element models of the colorectum based on our experimental evidence and validated our approaches against independent experimental data. We included layer- and segment-specific residual stretches/stresses in our simulations via the prestrain algorithm built into the finite element software febio. Our models and modeling approaches allow researchers to predict both organ and intratissue biomechanics of the colorectum and may facilitate better understanding of the underlying mechanical mechanisms of visceral pain.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  3. Abstract Spin-valley locking in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides has attracted enormous interest, since it offers potential for valleytronic and optoelectronic applications. Such an exotic electronic state has sparsely been seen in bulk materials. Here, we report spin-valley locking in a Dirac semimetal BaMnSb 2 . This is revealed by comprehensive studies using first principles calculations, tight-binding and effective model analyses, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy measurements. Moreover, this material also exhibits a stacked quantum Hall effect (QHE). The spin-valley degeneracy extracted from the QHE is close to 2. This result, together with the Landau level spin splitting, further confirms the spin-valley lockingmore »picture. In the extreme quantum limit, we also observed a plateau in the z -axis resistance, suggestive of a two-dimensional chiral surface state present in the quantum Hall state. These findings establish BaMnSb 2 as a rare platform for exploring coupled spin and valley physics in bulk single crystals and accessing 3D interacting topological states.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022
  4. Bosansky, B. ; Gonzalez, C. ; Rass, S. ; Sinha, A. (Ed.)
  5. Simultaneous human activities, such as the Super Bowl game, would cause certain impacts on frequency fluctuations in power systems. With the help of FNET/GridEye measurements, this paper aims to give comprehensive analyses on the frequency fluctuations during Super Bowl LIV held on Feb. 2, 2020, so as to better understand several phenomena caused by simultaneous activities which will help system operations and controls. First, recent developments of the FNET/GridEye are briefly introduced. Second, the frequency fluctuations of the Eastern Interconnection (EI), western electricity coordinating council (WECC), and electric reliability council of Texas (ERCOT) power systems during Super Bowl LIV aremore »analyzed. Third, frequency fluctuations of Super Bowl Sunday and ordinary Sundays in 2020 are compared. Finally, the differences of frequency fluctuations among different years during the Super Bowl and their change trends are also given. Furthermore, several possible explanations, including the simultaneity of electricity consumption at the beginning of commercial breaks and the halftime show, the increasing usage of the Internet, and the increasing size of TV screens, are illustrated in detail in this paper.« less