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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2023
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2023
  3. In many low-temperature plasmas (LTPs), the OH radical and temperature represent key properties of plasma reactivity. However, OH and temperature measurements in weakly ionized LTPs are challenging, due to the low concentration and short lifetime of OH and the abrupt temperature rise caused by fast gas heating. To address such issues, this Letter combined cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS) with femtosecond (fs) pulses to enable sensitive single-shot broadband measurements of OH and temperature with a time resolution of ∼180 ns in LTPs. Such a combination leveraged several benefits. With the appropriately designed cavity, an absorption gain of ∼66 was achieved, enhancing the actual OH detection limit by ∼55× to the 1011cm-3level (sub-ppm in this work) compared with single-pass absorption. Single-shot measurements were enabled while maintaining a time resolution of ∼180 ns, sufficiently short for detecting OH with a lifetime of ∼100 μs. With the broadband fs laser, ∼34,000 cavity modes were matched with ∼95 modes matched on each CCD pixel bandwidth, such that fs-CEAS became immune to the laser-cavity coupling noise and highly robust across the entire spectral range. Also, the broadband fs laser allowed simultaneous sensing of many absorption features to enable simultaneous multi-parameter measurements with enhanced accuracies.

    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 22, 2023
  4. This Letter reports a femtosecond ultraviolet laser absorption spectroscopy (fs-UV-LAS) for simultaneous in situ measurements of temperature and species. This fs-UV-LAS technique was demonstrated based on X 2 Π-A 2 Σ + transitions of OH radicals near 308 nm generated in low temperature plasmas and flames. The fs-UV-LAS technique has revealed three major diagnostic benefits. First, a series of absorption features within a spectral bandwidth of ∼3.2 nm near 308 nm were simultaneously measured and then enabled simultaneous multi-parameter measurements with enhanced accuracy. The results show that the temperature and OH concentration could be measured with accuracy enhanced by 29–88% and 58–91%, respectively, compared to those obtained with past two-narrow-line absorption methods. Second, an ultrafast time resolution of ∼120 picoseconds was accomplished for the measurements. Third, due to the large OH X 2 Π-A 2 Σ + transitions in the UV range, a simple single-pass absorption with a 3-cm path length was allowed for measurements in plasmas with low OH number density down to ∼2 × 10 13  cm −3 . Also due to the large OH UV transitions, single-shot fs absorption measurements were accomplished in flames, which was expected to offer more insights into chemically reactive flow dynamics.