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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 5, 2024
  2. The duality between electric and magnetic dipoles in electromagnetism only partly applies to condensed matter. In particular, the elementary excitations of the magnetic and ferroelectric orders, namely magnons and ferrons, respectively, have received asymmetric attention from the condensed matter community in the past. In this Perspective, we introduce and summarize the current state of the budding field of “ferronics.” We argue that the introduction of dipole-carrying elementary excitations allows the modeling of many observables and potentially leads to applications in thermal, information, and communication technologies. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2024
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  4. Interactions between plants and herbivores are central in most ecosystems, but their strength is highly variable. The amount of variability within a system is thought to influence most aspects of plant-herbivore biology, from ecological stability to plant defense evolution. Our understanding of what influences variability, however, is limited by sparse data. We collected standardized surveys of herbivory for 503 plant species at 790 sites across 116° of latitude. With these data, we show that within-population variability in herbivory increases with latitude, decreases with plant size, and is phylogenetically structured. Differences in the magnitude of variability are thus central to how plant-herbivore biology varies across macroscale gradients. We argue that increased focus on interaction variability will advance understanding of patterns of life on Earth.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 10, 2024