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  1. Social media platforms are playing increasingly critical roles in disaster response and rescue operations. During emergencies, users can post rescue requests along with their addresses on social media, while volunteers can search for those messages and send help. However, efficiently leveraging social media in rescue operations remains challenging because of the lack of tools to identify rescue request messages on social media automatically and rapidly. Analyzing social media data, such as Twitter data, relies heavily on Natural Language Processing (NLP) algorithms to extract information from texts. The introduction of bidirectional transformers models, such as the Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers (BERT) model, has significantly outperformed previous NLP models in numerous text analysis tasks, providing new opportunities to precisely understand and classify social media data for diverse applications. This study developed and compared ten VictimFinder models for identifying rescue request tweets, three based on milestone NLP algorithms and seven BERT-based. A total of 3191 manually labeled disaster-related tweets posted during 2017 Hurricane Harvey were used as the training and testing datasets. We evaluated the performance of each model by classification accuracy, computation cost, and model stability. Experiment results show that all BERT-based models have significantly increased the accuracy of categorizing rescue-related tweets. The best model for identifying rescue request tweets is a customized BERT-based model with a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) classifier. Its F1-score is 0.919, which outperforms the baseline model by 10.6%. The developed models can promote social media use for rescue operations in future disaster events. 
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  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2024
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  5. Abstract A study of the charge conjugation and parity ( $$\textit{CP}$$ CP ) properties of the interaction between the Higgs boson and $$\tau $$ τ -leptons is presented. The study is based on a measurement of $$\textit{CP}$$ CP -sensitive angular observables defined by the visible decay products of $$\tau $$ τ -leptons produced in Higgs boson decays. The analysis uses 139 fb $$^{-1}$$ - 1 of proton–proton collision data recorded at a centre-of-mass energy of $$\sqrt{s}= 13$$ s = 13  TeV with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. Contributions from $$\textit{CP}$$ CP -violating interactions between the Higgs boson and $$\tau $$ τ -leptons are described by a single mixing angle parameter $$\phi _{\tau }$$ ϕ τ in the generalised Yukawa interaction. Without constraining the $$H\rightarrow \tau \tau $$ H → τ τ signal strength to its expected value under the Standard Model hypothesis, the mixing angle $$\phi _{\tau }$$ ϕ τ is measured to be $$9^{\circ } \pm 16^{\circ }$$ 9 ∘ ± 16 ∘ , with an expected value of $$0^{\circ } \pm 28^{\circ }$$ 0 ∘ ± 28 ∘ at the 68% confidence level. The pure $$\textit{CP}$$ CP -odd hypothesis is disfavoured at a level of 3.4 standard deviations. The results are compatible with the predictions for the Higgs boson in the Standard Model. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  6. A bstract A search for heavy Higgs bosons produced in association with a vector boson and decaying into a pair of vector bosons is performed in final states with two leptons (electrons or muons) of the same electric charge, missing transverse momentum and jets. A data sample of proton–proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV recorded with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider between 2015 and 2018 is used. The data correspond to a total integrated luminosity of 139 fb − 1 . The observed data are in agreement with Standard Model background expectations. The results are interpreted using higher-dimensional operators in an effective field theory. Upper limits on the production cross-section are calculated at 95% confidence level as a function of the heavy Higgs boson’s mass and coupling strengths to vector bosons. Limits are set in the Higgs boson mass range from 300 to 1500 GeV, and depend on the assumed couplings. The highest excluded mass for a heavy Higgs boson with the coupling combinations explored is 900 GeV. Limits on coupling strengths are also provided. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024