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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 6, 2024
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2024
  3. Inertial migration of spherical particles has been investigated extensively using experiments, theory, and computational modeling. Yet, a systematic investigation of the effect of particle shape on inertial migration is still lacking. Herein, we numerically mapped the migration dynamics of a prolate particle in a straight rectangular microchannel using smoothed particles hydrodynamics (SPH). For the first time, we identified a new logrolling behavior of a prolate ellipsoidal particle in the confined channel. Our findings are especially relevant to the applications where particle shape and alignment are used for sorting and analysis, such as shape-based enrichment of microalgae, bacteria, and chromosomes. 
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  4. In this work, full 3-D numerical simulations are performed to study the combined effects of elastic and inertial forces along the Y and Z-midline of the channel. Ultimately, simulation results are compared and matched with experimental fluorescent streak images of the focusing of particles under the same parametric conditions. We reported that shear-gradient (FSG), N2-induced secondary flow transversal drag (FSF), and elastic (FEL) lift are the main forces responsible for the focusing of particles in the elasto-inertial regime. 
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  5. In database-as-a-service platforms, automated ver-ification of query equivalence helps eliminate redundant computation in the form of overlapping sub-queries. Researchers have proposed two pragmatic techniques to tackle this problem. The first approach consists of reducing the queries to algebraic expressions and proving their equivalence using an algebraic theory. The limitations of this technique are threefold. It cannot prove the equivalence of queries with significant differences in the attributes of their relational operators (e.g., predicates in the filter operator). It does not support certain widely-used SQL features (e.g., NULL values). Its verification procedure is computationally intensive. The second approach transforms this problem to a constraint satisfaction problem and leverages a general-purpose solver to determine query equivalence. This technique consists of deriving the symbolic representation of the queries and proving their equivalence by determining the query containment relationship between the symbolic expressions. While the latter approach addresses all the limitations of the former technique, it only proves the equivalence of queries under set semantics (i.e., output tables must not contain duplicate tuples). However, in practice, database applications use bag semantics (i.e., output tables may contain duplicate tuples) In this paper, we introduce a novel symbolic approach for proving query equivalence under bag semantics. We transform the problem of proving query equivalence under bag semantics to that of proving the existence of a bijective, identity map between tuples returned by the queries on all valid inputs. We classify SQL queries into four categories, and propose a set of novel category-specific verification algorithms. We implement this symbolic approach in SPES and demonstrate that it proves the equivalence of a larger set of query pairs (95/232) under bag semantics compared to the SOTA tools based on algebraic (30/232) and symbolic approaches (67/232) under set and bag semantics, respectively. Furthermore, SPES is 3X faster than the symbolic tool that proves equivalence under set semantics. 
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  6. Abstract In various so-called strange metals, electrons undergo Planckian dissipation 1,2 , a strong and anomalous scattering that grows linearly with temperature 3 , in contrast to the quadratic temperature dependence expected from the standard theory of metals. In some cuprates 4,5 and pnictides 6 , a linear dependence of resistivity on a magnetic field has also been considered anomalous—possibly an additional facet of Planckian dissipation. Here we show that the resistivity of the cuprate strange metals Nd 0.4 La 1.6− x Sr x CuO 4 (ref. 7 ) and La 2− x Sr x CuO 4 (ref. 8 ) is quantitatively consistent with the standard Boltzmann theory of electron motion in a magnetic field, in all aspects—field strength, field direction, temperature and disorder level. The linear field dependence is found to be simply the consequence of scattering rate anisotropy. We conclude that Planckian dissipation is anomalous in its temperature dependence, but not in its field dependence. The scattering rate in these cuprates does not depend on field, which means that their Planckian dissipation is robust against fields up to at least 85 T. 
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  7. A. Weinberger ; W. Chen ; D.Hernández-Leo ; D., B. Chen (Ed.)
    Scientific argumentation and modeling are both core practices in learning and doing science. However, they are challenging for students. Although there is considerable literature about scientific argumentation or modeling practice in K-12 science, there are limited studies on how engaging students in modeling and scientific argumentation might be mutually supportive. This study aims to explore how 5th graders can be supported by our designed mediators as they engage in argumentation and modeling, in particular, model revision. We implemented a virtual afterschool science club to examine how our modeling tool – MEME (Model and Evidence Mapping Environment), provided evidence, peer comments, and other mediators influenced students in learning about aquatic ecosystems through developing a model. While both groups that we examined constructed strong arguments and developed good models, we show how the mediators played different roles in helping them be successful. 
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