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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2024
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 22, 2024
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2024
  4. Abstract

    The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument, consisting of 5020 robotic fiber positioners and associated systems on the Mayall telescope at Kitt Peak, Arizona, is carrying out a survey to measure the spectra of 40 million galaxies and quasars and produce the largest 3D map of the universe to date. The primary science goal is to use baryon acoustic oscillations to measure the expansion history of the universe and the time evolution of dark energy. A key function of the online control system is to position each fiber on a particular target in the focal plane with an accuracy of 11μm rms 2D. This paper describes the set of software programs used to perform this function along with the methods used to validate their performance.

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  5. In this paper, we propose a Flexible processing-in-DRAM framework named FlexiDRAM that supports the efficient implementation of complex bulk bitwise operations. This framework is developed on top of a new reconfigurable in-DRAM accelerator that leverages the analog operation of DRAM sub-arrays and elevates it to implement XOR2-MAJ3 operations between operands stored in the same bit-line. FlexiDRAM first generates an efficient XOR-MAJ representation of the desired logic and then appropriately allocates DRAM rows to the operands to execute any in-DRAM computation. We develop ISA and software support required to compute in-DRAM operation. FlexiDRAM transforms current memory architecture to a massively parallel computational unit and can be leveraged to significantly reduce the latency and energy consumption of complex workloads. Our extensive circuit-to-architecture simulation results show that averaged across two well-known deep learning workloads, FlexiDRAM achieves ∼15× energy-saving and 13× speedup over the GPU outperforming recent processing-in-DRAM platforms. 
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  6. Abstract Soft-elasticity in monodomain liquid crystal elastomers (LCEs) is promising for impact-absorbing applications where strain energy is ideally absorbed at constant stress. Conventionally, compressive and impact studies on LCEs have not been performed given the notorious difficulty synthesizing sufficiently large monodomain devices. Here, we use direct-ink writing 3D printing to fabricate bulk (>cm 3 ) monodomain LCE devices and study their compressive soft-elasticity over 8 decades of strain rate. At quasi-static rates, the monodomain soft-elastic LCE dissipated 45% of strain energy while comparator materials dissipated less than 20%. At strain rates up to 3000 s −1 , our soft-elastic monodomain LCE consistently performed closest to an ideal-impact absorber. Drop testing reveals soft-elasticity as a likely mechanism for effectively reducing the severity of impacts – with soft elastic LCEs offering a Gadd Severity Index 40% lower than a comparable isotropic elastomer. Lastly, we demonstrate tailoring deformation and buckling behavior in monodomain LCEs via the printed director orientation. 
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