skip to main content

Search for: All records

Creators/Authors contains: "Zhou, Z."

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. Abstract

    Certain archaeal cells possess external proteinaceous sheath, whose structure and organization are both unknown. By cellular cryogenic electron tomography (cryoET), here we have determined sheath organization of the prototypical archaeon,Methanospirillum hungatei. Fitting of Alphafold-predicted model of the sheath protein (SH) monomer into the 7.9 Å-resolution structure reveals that the sheath cylinder consists of axially stacked β-hoops, each of which is comprised of two to six 400 nm-diameter rings of β-strand arches (β-rings). With both similarities to and differences from amyloid cross-β fibril architecture, each β-ring contains two giant β-sheets contributed by ~ 450 SH monomers that entirely encircle the outer circumference of the cell. Tomograms of immature cells suggest models of sheath biogenesis: oligomerization of SH monomers into β-ring precursors after their membrane-proximal cytoplasmic synthesis, followed by translocation through the unplugged end of a dividing cell, and insertion of nascent β-hoops into the immature sheath cylinder at the junction of two daughter cells.

    more » « less
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 16, 2024
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 25, 2024
  5. Abstract

    We present a measurement of the Hubble ConstantH0using the gravitational wave event GW190412, an asymmetric binary black hole merger detected by LIGO/Virgo, as a dark standard siren. This event does not have an electromagnetic counterpart, so we use the statistical standard siren method and marginalize over potential host galaxies from the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) survey. GW190412 is well-localized to 12 deg2(90% credible interval), so it is promising for a dark siren analysis. The dark siren value forH0=85.433.9+29.1km s−1 Mpc−1, with a posterior shape that is consistent with redshift overdensities. When combined with the bright standard siren measurement from GW170817 we recoverH0=77.965.03+23.0km s−1 Mpc−1, consistent with both early and late-time Universe measurements ofH0. This work represents the first standard siren analysis performed with DESI data, and includes the most complete spectroscopic sample used in a dark siren analysis to date.

    more » « less
  6. Abstract

    The α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex family catalyzes the essential oxidative decarboxylation of α-keto acids to yield acyl-CoA and NADH. Despite performing the same overarching reaction, members of the family have different component structures and structural organization between each other and across phylogenetic species. While native structures of α-keto acid dehydrogenase complexes from bacteria and fungi became available recently, the atomic structure and organization of their mammalian counterparts in native states remain unknown. Here, we report the cryo-electron microscopy structures of the endogenous cubic 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (OGDC) and icosahedral pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) cores from bovine kidney determined at resolutions of 3.5 Å and 3.8 Å, respectively. The structures of multiple proteins were reconstructed from a single lysate sample, allowing direct structural comparison without the concerns of differences arising from sample preparation and structure determination. Although native and recombinant E2 core scaffold structures are similar, the native structures are decorated with their peripheral E1 and E3 subunits. Asymmetric sub-particle reconstructions support heterogeneity in the arrangements of these peripheral subunits. In addition, despite sharing a similar monomeric fold, OGDC and PDC E2 cores have distinct interdomain and intertrimer interactions, which suggests a means of modulating self-assembly to mitigate heterologous binding between mismatched E2 species. The lipoyl moiety lies near a mobile gatekeeper within the interdomain active site of OGDC E2 and PDC E2. Analysis of the twofold related intertrimer interface identified secondary structural differences and chemical interactions between icosahedral and cubic geometries of the core. Taken together, our study provides a direct structural comparison of OGDC and PDC from the same source and offers new insights into determinants of interdomain interactions and of architecture diversity among α-keto acid dehydrogenase complexes.

    more » « less

    We present the first eight months of data from our secondary target programme within the ongoing Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) survey. Our programme uses a mid-infrared and optical colour selection to preferentially target dust-reddened quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) that would have otherwise been missed by the nominal DESI QSO selection. So far, we have obtained optical spectra for 3038 candidates, of which ∼70 per cent of the high-quality objects (those with robust redshifts) are visually confirmed to be Type 1 QSOs, consistent with the expected fraction from the main DESI QSO survey. By fitting a dust-reddened blue QSO composite to the QSO spectra, we find they are well-fitted by a normal QSO with up to AV ∼ 4 mag of line-of-sight dust extinction. Utilizing radio data from the LOFAR Two-metre Sky Survey (LoTSS) DR2, we identify a striking positive relationship between the amount of line-of-sight dust extinction towards a QSO and the radio detection fraction, that is not driven by radio-loud systems, redshift and/or luminosity effects. This demonstrates an intrinsic connection between dust reddening and the production of radio emission in QSOs, whereby the radio emission is most likely due to low-powered jets or winds/outflows causing shocks in a dusty environment. On the basis of this evidence, we suggest that red QSOs may represent a transitional ‘blow-out’ phase in the evolution of QSOs, where winds and outflows evacuate the dust and gas to reveal an unobscured blue QSO.

    more » « less
  8. The unsupervised task of aligning two or more distributions in a shared latent space has many applications including fair representations, batch effect mitigation, and unsupervised domain adaptation. Existing flow-based approaches estimate multiple flows independently, which is equivalent to learning multiple full generative models. Other approaches require adversarial learning, which can be computationally expensive and challenging to optimize. Thus, we aim to jointly align multiple distributions while avoiding adversarial learning. Inspired by efficient alignment algorithms from optimal transport (OT) theory for univariate distributions, we develop a simple iterative method to build deep and expressive flows. Our method decouples each iteration into two subproblems: 1) form a variational approximation of a distribution divergence and 2) minimize this variational approximation via closed-form invertible alignment maps based on known OT results. Our empirical results give evidence that this iterative algorithm achieves competitive distribution alignment at low computational cost while being able to naturally handle more than two distributions. 
    more » « less