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  1. We propose an end-to-end optimized adversarial deep compressed imaging modality. This method exploits the adversarial duality of the sensing basis and sparse representation basis in compressed sensing framework and shows solid super-resolution results.
  2. Reflection is a critical aspect of the learning process. However, educational games tend to focus on supporting learning concepts rather than supporting reflection. While reflection occurs in educational games, the educational game design and research community can benefit from more knowledge of how to facilitate player reflection through game design. In this paper, we examine educational programming games and analyze how reflection is currently supported. We find that current approaches prioritize accuracy over the individual learning process and often only support reflection post-gameplay. Our analysis identifies common reflective features, and we develop a set of open areas for future work.more »We discuss these promising directions towards engaging the community in developing more mechanics for reflection in educational games.« less
  3. Abstract The accurate simulation of additional interactions at the ATLAS experiment for the analysis of proton–proton collisions delivered by the Large Hadron Collider presents a significant challenge to the computing resources. During the LHC Run 2 (2015–2018), there were up to 70 inelastic interactions per bunch crossing, which need to be accounted for in Monte Carlo (MC) production. In this document, a new method to account for these additional interactions in the simulation chain is described. Instead of sampling the inelastic interactions and adding their energy deposits to a hard-scatter interaction one-by-one, the inelastic interactions are presampled, independent of the hardmore »scatter, and stored as combined events. Consequently, for each hard-scatter interaction, only one such presampled event needs to be added as part of the simulation chain. For the Run 2 simulation chain, with an average of 35 interactions per bunch crossing, this new method provides a substantial reduction in MC production CPU needs of around 20%, while reproducing the properties of the reconstructed quantities relevant for physics analyses with good accuracy.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  4. Fish maintain high swimming efficiencies over a wide range of speeds. A key to this achievement is their flexibility, yet even flexible robotic fish trail real fish in terms of performance. Here, we explore how fish leverage tunable flexibility by using their muscles to modulate the stiffness of their tails to achieve efficient swimming. We derived a model that explains how and why tuning stiffness affects performance. We show that to maximize efficiency, muscle tension should scale with swimming speed squared, offering a simple tuning strategy for fish-like robots. Tuning stiffness can double swimming efficiency at tuna-like frequencies and speedsmore »(0 to 6 hertz; 0 to 2 body lengths per second). Energy savings increase with frequency, suggesting that high-frequency fish-like robots have the most to gain from tuning stiffness.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 11, 2022
  5. Phylogenetic networks extend phylogenetic trees to allow for modeling reticulate evolutionary processes such as hybridization. They take the shape of a rooted, directed, acyclic graph, and when parameterized with evolutionary parameters, such as divergence times and population sizes, they form a generative process of molecular sequence evolution. Early work on computational methods for phylogenetic network inference focused exclusively on reticulations and sought networks with the fewest number of reticulations to fit the data. As processes such as incomplete lineage sorting (ILS) could be at play concurrently with hybridization, work in the last decade has shifted to computational approaches for phylogeneticmore »network inference in the presence of ILS. In such a short period, significant advances have been made on developing and implementing such computational approaches. In particular, parsimony, likelihood, and Bayesian methods have been devised for estimating phylogenetic networks and associated parameters using estimated gene trees as data. Use of those inference methods has been augmented with statistical tests for specific hypotheses of hybridization, like the D-statistic. Most recently, Bayesian approaches for inferring phylogenetic networks directly from sequence data were developed and implemented. In this chapter, we survey such advances and discuss model assumptions as well as methods’ strengths and limitations. We also discuss parallel efforts in the population genetics community aimed at inferring similar structures. Finally, we highlight major directions for future research in this area.« less