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  1. null (Ed.)
    ABSTRACT The stratigraphic record of Cenozoic uplift and denudation of the Himalayas is distributed across its peripheral foreland basins, as well as in the sediments of the Ganges–Brahmaputra Delta (GBD) and the Bengal–Nicobar Fan (BNF). Recent interrogation of Miocene–Quaternary sediments of the GBD and BNF advance our knowledge of Himalayan sediment dispersal and its relationship to regional tectonics and climate, but these studies are limited to IODP boreholes from the BNF (IODP 354 and 362, 2015-16) and Quaternary sediment cores from the GBD (NSF-PIRE: Life on a tectonically active delta, 2010-18). We examine a complementary yet understudied stratigraphic record of the Miocene–Pliocene ancestral Brahmaputra Delta in outcrops of the Indo-Burman Ranges fold–thrust belt (IBR) of eastern India. We present detailed lithofacies assemblages of Neogene delta plain (Tipam Group) and intertidal to upper-shelf (Surma Group) deposits of the IBR based on two ∼ 500 m stratigraphic sections. New detrital-apatite fission-track (dAFT) and (U-Th)/He (dAHe) dates from the Surma Group in the IBR help to constrain maximum depositional ages (MDA), thermal histories, and sediment accumulation rates. Three fluvial facies (F1–F3) and four shallow marine to intertidal facies (M1–M4) are delineated based on analog depositional environments of the Holocene–modern GBD. Unreset dAFT and dAHe ages constrain MDA to ∼ 9–11 Ma for the Surma Group, which is bracketed by intensification of turbidite deposition on the eastern BNF (∼ 13.5–6.8 Ma). Two dAHe samples yielded younger (∼ 3 Ma) reset ages that we interpret to record cooling from denudation following burial resetting due to a thicker (∼ 2.2–3.2 km) accumulation of sediments near the depocenter. Thermal modeling of the dAFT and dAHe results using QTQt and HeFTy suggest that late Miocene marginal marine sediment accumulation rates may have ranged from ∼ 0.9 to 1.1 mm/yr near the center of the paleodelta. Thermal modeling results imply postdepositional cooling beginning at ∼ 8–6.5 Ma, interpreted to record onset of exhumation associated with the advancing IBR fold belt. The timing of post-burial exhumation of the IBR strata is consistent with previously published constraints for the avulsion of the paleo-Brahmaputra to the west and a westward shift of turbidite deposition on the BNF that started at ∼ 6.8 Ma. Our results contextualize tectonic controls on basin history, creating a pathway for future investigations into autogenic and climatic drivers of behavior of fluvial systems that can be extracted from the stratigraphic record. 
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  2. This supplemental text (pp. 2-4) describes the analytical procedures for the detrital zircon fission track (dzFT) and detrital zircon U-Pb analyses (dzUPb). Sample locations are listed in supplemental file S1. The new dzUPb analytical data are presented in supplemental file S2. Supplemental files S3, S4, and S5 give the data sets used in the regional dzUPb compilations, a list of the compiled data, and the intersample comparison statistical results for the dzUPb compilations, respectively. Supplemental S6 contains the Monte-Carlo modeling results for the source terrane inversions using DZMix (Sundell and Saylor, 2017). Supplemental file S7 contains the full data tables and a summary of the dzFT results. All prior datasets were compiled from the supplemental files released with the original publications.

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  3. Abstract

    The Bengal Basin preserves the erosional signals of coupled tectonic‐climatic change during late Cenozoic development of the Himalayan orogen, yet regional correlation and interpretation of these signals remains incomplete. We present a new geologic map of fluvial‐deltaic deposits of the Indo‐Burman Ranges (IBR), five detrital zircon fission track analyses, and twelve high‐n detrital zircon U‐Pb age distributions (dzUPb) from the Barail (late Eocene–early Miocene), Surma (early–late Miocene), and Tipam (late Miocene–Pliocene) Groups of the ancestral Brahmaputra delta. We use dzUPb statistical tests to correlate the IBR units with equivalent age strata throughout the Bengal Basin. An influx of trans‐Himalayan sediment and the first appearance of ∼50 Ma grains of the Gangdese batholith in the lower Surma Group (∼18–15 Ma) records the early Miocene arrival of the ancestral Brahmaputra delta to the Bengal Basin. Contributions from Himalayan sources systematically decrease up section through the late Miocene as the contribution of Trans‐Himalayan Arc sources increases. The Miocene (∼18–8 Ma) deposition of the Surma Group records upstream expansion of the ancestral Brahmaputra River into southeastern Tibet. Late Miocene (<8 Ma) progradation of the fluvial part of the delta (Tipam Group) routed trans‐Himalayan sediment over the shelf edge to the Nicobar Fan. We propose that Miocene progradation of the ancestral Brahmaputra delta reflects increasing rates of erosion and sea level fall during intensification of the South Asian Monsoon after the Miocene Climate Optimum, contemporaneous with a pulse of tectonic uplift of the Himalayan hinterland and Tibet.

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