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As one of the popular deep learning methods, deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs) have been widely adopted in segmentation tasks and have received positive feedback. However, in segmentation tasks, DCNN-based frameworks are known for their incompetence in dealing with global relations within imaging features. Although several techniques have been proposed to enhance the global reasoning of DCNN, these models are either not able to gain satisfying performances compared with traditional fully-convolutional structures or not capable of utilizing the basic advantages of CNN-based networks (namely the ability of local reasoning). In this study, compared with current attempts to combine FCNs and global reasoning methods, we fully extracted the ability of self-attention by designing a novel attention mechanism for 3D computation and proposed a new segmentation framework (named 3DTU) for three-dimensional medical image segmentation tasks. This new framework processes images in an end-to-end manner and executes 3D computation on both the encoder side (which contains a 3D transformer) and the decoder side (which is based on a 3D DCNN). We tested our framework on two independent datasets that consist of 3D MRI and CT images. Experimental results clearly demonstrate that our method outperforms several state-of-the-art segmentation methods in various metrics.Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 6, 2024
Abstract Neural network quantum states provide a novel representation of the many-body states of interacting quantum systems and open up a promising route to solve frustrated quantum spin models that evade other numerical approaches. Yet its capacity to describe complex magnetic orders with large unit cells has not been demonstrated, and its performance in a rugged energy landscape has been questioned. Here we apply restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs) and stochastic gradient descent to seek the ground states of a compass spin model on the honeycomb lattice, which unifies the Kitaev model, Ising model and the quantum 120° model with a single tuning parameter. We report calculation results on the variational energy, order parameters and correlation functions. The phase diagram obtained is in good agreement with the predictions of tensor network ansatz, demonstrating the capacity of RBMs in learning the ground states of frustrated quantum spin Hamiltonians. The limitations of the calculation are discussed. A few strategies are outlined to address some of the challenges in machine learning frustrated quantum magnets.
Massive wildlife losses over the past 50 y have brought new urgency to identifying both the drivers of population decline and potential solutions. We provide large-scale evidence that air pollution, specifically ozone, is associated with declines in bird abundance in the United States. We show that an air pollution regulation limiting ozone precursors emissions has delivered substantial benefits to bird conservation. Our estimates imply that air quality improvements over the past 4 decades have stemmed the decline in bird populations, averting the loss of 1.5 billion birds, ∼20% of current totals. Our results highlight that in addition to protecting human health, air pollution regulations have previously unrecognized and unquantified conservation cobenefits.