skip to main content

Search for: All records

Creators/Authors contains: "de Beurs, Zoe L."

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. Abstract

    X-ray binaries (XRBs) consist of a compact object that accretes material from an orbiting secondary star. The most secure method we have for determining if the compact object is a black hole is to determine its mass: This is limited to bright objects and requires substantial time-intensive spectroscopic monitoring. With new X-ray sources being discovered with different X-ray observatories, developing efficient, robust means to classify compact objects becomes increasingly important. We compare three machine-learning classification methods (Bayesian Gaussian Processes (BGPs), K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN), Support Vector Machines) for determining whether the compact objects are neutron stars or black holes (BHs) in XRB systems. Each machine-learning method uses spatial patterns that exist between systems of the same type in 3D color–color–intensity diagrams. We used lightcurves extracted using 6 yr of data with MAXI/GSC for 44 representative sources. We find that all three methods are highly accurate in distinguishing pulsing from nonpulsing neutron stars (NPNS) with 95% of NPNS and 100% of pulsars accurately predicted. All three methods have high accuracy in distinguishing BHs from pulsars (92%) but continue to confuse BHs with a subclass of NPNS, called bursters, with KNN doing the best at only 50% accuracy for predicting BHs. Themore »precision of all three methods is high, providing equivalent results over 5–10 independent runs. In future work, we will suggest a fourth dimension be incorporated to mitigate the confusion of BHs with bursters. This work paves the way toward more robust methods to efficiently distinguish BHs, NPNS, and pulsars.

    « less
  2. Abstract

    Measured spectral shifts due to intrinsic stellar variability (e.g., pulsations, granulation) and activity (e.g., spots, plages) are the largest source of error for extreme-precision radial-velocity (EPRV) exoplanet detection. Several methods are designed to disentangle stellar signals from true center-of-mass shifts due to planets. The Extreme-precision Spectrograph (EXPRES) Stellar Signals Project (ESSP) presents a self-consistent comparison of 22 different methods tested on the same extreme-precision spectroscopic data from EXPRES. Methods derived new activity indicators, constructed models for mapping an indicator to the needed radial-velocity (RV) correction, or separated out shape- and shift-driven RV components. Since no ground truth is known when using real data, relative method performance is assessed using the total and nightly scatter of returned RVs and agreement between the results of different methods. Nearly all submitted methods return a lower RV rms than classic linear decorrelation, but no method is yet consistently reducing the RV rms to sub-meter-per-second levels. There is a concerning lack of agreement between the RVs returned by different methods. These results suggest that continued progress in this field necessitates increased interpretability of methods, high-cadence data to capture stellar signals at all timescales, and continued tests like the ESSP using consistent data sets withmore »more advanced metrics for method performance. Future comparisons should make use of various well-characterized data sets—such as solar data or data with known injected planetary and/or stellar signals—to better understand method performance and whether planetary signals are preserved.

    « less