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  1. Abstract Isotope variations of nucleosynthetic origin among solar system solid samples are well documented, yet the origin of these variations is still uncertain. The observed variability of 54 Cr among materials formed in different regions of the protoplanetary disk has been attributed to variable amounts of presolar, chromium-rich oxide (chromite) grains, which exist within the meteoritic stardust inventory and most likely originated from some type of supernova explosion. To investigate if core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) could be the site of origin of these grains, we analyze yields of CCSN models of stars with initial masses 15, 20, and 25 M ⊙ , and solar metallicity. We present an extensive abundance data set of the Cr, Mg, and Al isotopes as a function of enclosed mass. We find cases in which the explosive C ashes produce a composition in good agreement with the observed 54 Cr/ 52 Cr and 53 Cr/ 52 Cr ratios as well as the 50 Cr/ 52 Cr ratios. Taking into account that the signal at atomic mass 50 could also originate from 50 Ti, the ashes of explosive He burning also match the observed ratios. Addition of material from the He ashes (enriched in Al and Crmore »relative to Mg to simulate the make-up of chromite grains) to the solar system’s composition may reproduce the observed correlation between Mg and Cr anomalies, while material from the C ashes does not present significant Mg anomalies together with Cr isotopic variations. In all cases, nonradiogenic, stable Mg isotope variations dominate over the variations expected from 26 Al.« less
  2. ABSTRACT Short-lived radioactive isotopes (SLRs) with half-lives between 0.1 and 100 Myr can be used to probe the origin of the Solar system. In this work, we examine the core-collapse supernovae production of the 15 SLRs produced: 26Al, 36Cl, 41Ca, 53Mn, 60Fe, 92Nb, 97Tc, 98Tc, 107Pd, 126Sn, 129I, 135Cs, 146Sm, 182Hf, and 205Pb. We probe the impact of the uncertainties of the core-collapse explosion mechanism by examining a collection of 62 core-collapse models with initial masses of 15, 20, and 25 M⊙, explosion energies between 3.4 × 1050 and 1.8 × 1052 erg and compact remnant masses between 1.5 and 4.89 M⊙. We identify the impact of both explosion energy and remnant mass on the final yields of the SLRs. Isotopes produced within the innermost regions of the star, such as 92Nb and 97Tc, are the most affected by the remnant mass, 92Nb varying by five orders of magnitude. Isotopes synthesized primarily in explosive C-burning and explosive He-burning, such as 60Fe, are most affected by explosion energies. 60Fe increases by two orders of magnitude from the lowest to the highest explosion energy in the 15 M⊙ model. The final yield of each examined SLR is used to compare to literature models.
  3. Radioactive nuclei are the key to understanding the circumstances of the birth of our Sun because meteoritic analysis has proven that many of them were present at that time. Their origin, however, has been so far elusive. The ERC-CoG-2016 RADIOSTAR project is dedicated to investigating the production of radioactive nuclei by nuclear reactions inside stars, their evolution in the Milky Way Galaxy, and their presence in molecular clouds. So far, we have discovered that: (i) radioactive nuclei produced by slow (107Pd and 182Hf) and rapid (129I and 247Cm) neutron captures originated from stellar sources —asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and compact binary mergers, respectively—within the galactic environment that predated the formation of the molecular cloud where the Sun was born; (ii) the time that elapsed from the birth of the cloud to the birth of the Sun was of the order of 107 years, and (iii) the abundances of the very short-lived nuclei 26Al, 36Cl, and 41Ca can be explained by massive star winds in single or binary systems, if these winds directly polluted the early Solar System. Our current and future work, as required to finalise the picture of the origin of radioactive nuclei in the Solar System, involvesmore »studying the possible origin of radioactive nuclei in the early Solar System from core-collapse supernovae, investigating the production of 107Pd in massive star winds, modelling the transport and mixing of radioactive nuclei in the galactic and molecular cloud medium, and calculating the galactic chemical evolution of 53Mn and 60Fe and of the p-process isotopes 92Nb and 146Sm.« less
  4. Abstract

    Analysis of inclusions in primitive meteorites reveals that several short-lived radionuclides (SLRs) with half-lives of 0.1–100 Myr existed in the early solar system (ESS). We investigate the ESS origin of107Pd,135Cs, and182Hf, which are produced byslowneutron captures (thes-process) in asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. We modeled the Galactic abundances of these SLRs using theOMEGA+galactic chemical evolution (GCE) code and two sets of mass- and metallicity-dependent AGB nucleosynthesis yields (Monash and FRUITY). Depending on the ratio of the mean-lifeτof the SLR to the average length of time between the formations of AGB progenitorsγ, we calculate timescales relevant for the birth of the Sun. Ifτ/γ≳ 2, we predict self-consistent isolation times between 9 and 26 Myr by decaying the GCE predicted107Pd/108Pd,135Cs/133Cs, and182Hf/180Hf ratios to their respective ESS ratios. The predicted107Pd/182Hf ratio indicates that our GCE models are missing 9%–73% of107Pd and108Pd in the ESS. This missing component may have come from AGB stars of higher metallicity than those that contributed to the ESS in our GCE code. Ifτ/γ≲ 0.3, we calculate instead the time (TLE) from the last nucleosynthesis event that added the SLRs into the presolar matter to the formation of the oldest solids in the ESS. For the 2M,Z= 0.01more »Monash model we find a self-consistent solution ofTLE= 25.5 Myr.

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