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We introduce a method for novel view synthesis given only a single wide-baseline stereo image pair. In this challenging regime, 3D scene points are regularly observed only once, requiring prior-based reconstruction of scene geometry and appearance. We find that existing approaches to novel view synthesis from sparse observations fail due to recovering incorrect 3D geometry and due to the high cost of differentiable rendering that precludes their scaling to large-scale training. We take a step towards resolving these shortcomings by formulating a multi-view transformer encoder, proposing an efficient, image-space epipolar line sampling scheme to assemble image features for a target ray, and a lightweight cross-attention-based renderer. Our contributions enable training of our method on a large-scale real-world dataset of indoor and outdoor scenes. We demonstrate that our method learns powerful multi-view geometry priors while reducing both rendering time and memory footprint. We conduct extensive comparisons on held-out test scenes across two real-world datasets, significantly outperforming prior work on novel view synthesis from sparse image observations and achieving multi-view-consistent novel view synthesis.Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
Larochelle, Hugo ; Kamath, Gautam ; Hadsell, Raia ; Cho, Kyunghyun (Ed.)Neural scene representations, both continuous and discrete, have recently emerged as a powerful new paradigm for 3D scene understanding. Recent efforts have tackled unsupervised discovery of object-centric neural scene representations. However, the high cost of ray-marching, exacerbated by the fact that each object representation has to be ray-marched separately, leads to insufficiently sampled radiance fields and thus, noisy renderings, poor framerates, and high memory and time complexity during training and rendering. Here, we propose to represent objects in an object-centric, compositional scene representation as light fields. We propose a novel light field compositor module that enables reconstructing the global light field from a set of object-centric light fields. Dubbed Compositional Object Light Fields (COLF), our method enables unsupervised learning of object-centric neural scene representations, state-of-the-art reconstruction and novel view synthesis performance on standard datasets, and rendering and training speeds at orders of magnitude faster than existing 3D approaches.Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 20, 2024
We present a method to map 2D image observations of a scene to a persistent 3D scene representation, enabling novel view synthesis and disentangled representation of the movable and immovable components of the scene. Motivated by the bird’s-eye-view (BEV) representation commonly used in vision and robotics, we propose conditional neural groundplans, ground-aligned 2D feature grids, as persistent and memory-efficient scene representations. Our method is trained self-supervised from unlabeled multi-view observations using differentiable rendering, and learns to complete geometry and appearance of occluded regions. In addition, we show that we can leverage multi-view videos at training time to learn to separately reconstruct static and movable components of the scene from a single image at test time. The ability to separately reconstruct movable objects enables a variety of downstream tasks using simple heuristics, such as extraction of object-centric 3D representations, novel view synthesis, instance-level segmentation, 3D bounding box prediction, and scene editing. This highlights the value of neural groundplans as a backbone for efficient 3D scene understanding models.Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2024
Recent advances in machine learning have led to increased interest in solving visual computing problems using methods that employ coordinate‐based neural networks. These methods, which we call
neural fields, parameterize physical properties of scenes or objects across space and time. They have seen widespread success in problems such as 3D shape and image synthesis, animation of human bodies, 3D reconstruction, and pose estimation. Rapid progress has led to numerous papers, but a consolidation of the discovered knowledge has not yet emerged. We provide context, mathematical grounding, and a review of over 250 papers in the literature on neural fields. In Part I, we focus on neural field techniques by identifying common components of neural field methods, including different conditioning, representation, forward map, architecture, and manipulation methods. In Part II, we focus on applications of neural fields to different problems in visual computing, and beyond (e.g., robotics, audio). Our review shows the breadth of topics already covered in visual computing, both historically and in current incarnations, and highlights the improved quality, flexibility, and capability brought by neural field methods. Finally, we present a companion website that acts as a living database that can be continually updated by the community.
In this work, we address the lack of 3D understanding of generative neural networks by introducing a persistent 3D feature embedding for view synthesis. To this end, we propose DeepVoxels, a learned representation that encodes the view-dependent appearance of a 3D scene without having to explicitly model its geometry. At its core, our approach is based on a Cartesian 3D grid of persistent embedded features that learn to make use of the underlying 3D scene structure. Our approach combines insights from 3D geometric computer vision with recent advances in learning image-to-image mappings based on adversarial loss functions. DeepVoxels is supervised, without requiring a 3D reconstruction of the scene, using a 2D re-rendering loss and enforces perspective and multi-view geometry in a principled manner. We apply our persistent 3D scene representation to the problem of novel view synthesis demonstrating high-quality results for a variety of challenging scenes.