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  1. Abstract

    Galactic disks are highly responsive systems that often undergo external perturbations and subsequent collisionless equilibration, predominantly via phase mixing. We use linear perturbation theory to study the response of infinite isothermal slab analogs of disks to perturbations with diverse spatiotemporal characteristics. Without self-gravity of the response, the dominant Fourier modes that get excited in a disk are the bending and breathing modes, which, due to vertical phase mixing, trigger local phase-space spirals that are one- and two-armed, respectively. We demonstrate how the lateral streaming motion of slab stars causes phase spirals to damp out over time. The ratio of the perturbation timescale (τP) to the local, vertical oscillation time (τz) ultimately decides which of the two modes is excited. Faster, more impulsive (τP<τz) and slower, more adiabatic (τP>τz) perturbations excite stronger breathing and bending modes, respectively, although the response to very slow perturbations is exponentially suppressed. For encounters with satellite galaxies, this translates to more distant and more perpendicular encounters triggering stronger bending modes. We compute the direct response of the Milky Way disk to several of its satellite galaxies and find that recent encounters with all of them excite bending modes in the solar neighborhood. The encounter withmore »Sagittarius triggers a response that is at least 1–2 orders of magnitude larger than that due to any other satellite, including the Large Magellanic Cloud. We briefly discuss how ignoring the presence of a dark matter halo and the self-gravity of the response might impact our conclusions.

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    We present observational constraints on the galaxy–halo connection, focusing particularly on galaxy assembly bias from a novel combination of counts-in-cylinders statistics, P(NCIC), with the standard measurements of the projected two-point correlation function wp(rp), and number density ngal of galaxies. We measure ngal, wp(rp), and P(NCIC) for volume-limited, luminosity-threshold samples of galaxies selected from SDSS DR7, and use them to constrain halo occupation distribution (HOD) models, including a model in which galaxy occupation depends upon a secondary halo property, namely halo concentration. We detect significant positive central assembly bias for the Mr < −20.0 and Mr < −19.5 samples. Central galaxies preferentially reside within haloes of high concentration at fixed mass. Positive central assembly bias is also favoured in the Mr < −20.5 and Mr < −19.0 samples. We find no evidence of central assembly bias in the Mr < −21.0 sample. We observe only a marginal preference for negative satellite assembly bias in the Mr < −20.0 and Mr < −19.0 samples, and non-zero satellite assembly bias is not indicated in other samples. Our findings underscore the necessity of accounting for galaxy assembly bias when interpreting galaxy survey data, and demonstrate the potential of count statistics in extracting informationmore »from the spatial distribution of galaxies, which could be applied to both galaxy–halo connection studies and cosmological analyses.

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  3. Abstract

    We examine the origin of dynamical friction using a nonperturbative, orbit-based approach. Unlike the standard perturbative approach, in which dynamical friction arises from the LBK torque due to pure resonances, this alternative, complementary view nicely illustrates how a massive perturber significantly changes the energies and angular momenta of field particles on near-resonant orbits, with friction arising from an imbalance between particles that gain energy and those that lose energy. We treat dynamical friction in a spherical host system as a restricted three-body problem. This treatment is applicable in the “slow” regime, in which the perturber sinks slowly and the standard perturbative framework fails due to the onset of nonlinearities. Hence, it is especially suited to investigate the origin of core-stalling: the cessation of dynamical friction in central constant-density cores. We identify three different families of near-corotation-resonant orbits that dominate the contribution to dynamical friction. Their relative contribution is governed by the Lagrange points (fixed points in the corotating frame). In particular, one of the three families, which we call Pac-Man orbits because of their appearance in the corotating frame, is unique to cored density distributions. When the perturber reaches a central core, a bifurcation of the Lagrange points drasticallymore »changes the orbital makeup, with Pac-Man orbits becoming dominant. In addition, due to relatively small gradients in the distribution function inside a core, the net torque from these Pac-Man orbits becomes positive (enhancing), thereby effectuating a dynamical buoyancy. We argue that core-stalling occurs where this buoyancy is balanced by friction.

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  4. ABSTRACT We use a simulation-based modelling approach to analyse the anisotropic clustering of the BOSS LOWZ sample over the radial range $0.4 \, h^{-1} \, \mathrm{Mpc}$ to $63 \, h^{-1} \, \mathrm{Mpc}$, significantly extending what is possible with a purely analytic modelling framework. Our full-scale analysis yields constraints on the growth of structure that are a factor of two more stringent than any other study on large scales at similar redshifts. We infer fσ8 = 0.471 ± 0.024 at $z$ ≈ 0.25, and fσ8 = 0.430 ± 0.025 at $z$ ≈ 0.40; the corresponding ΛCDM predictions of the Planck cosmic microwave background (CMB) analysis are 0.470 ± 0.006 and 0.476 ± 0.005, respectively. Our results are thus consistent with Planck, but also follow the trend seen in previous low-redshift measurements of fσ8 falling slightly below the ΛCDM + CMB prediction. We find that small- and large-radial scales yield mutually consistent values of fσ8, but there are 1−2.5σ hints of small scales ($\lt 10 \, h^{-1} \, \mathrm{Mpc}$) preferring lower values for fσ8 relative to larger scales. We analyse the constraining power of the full range of radial scales, finding that most of the multipole information about fσ8 is contained in the scales $2 \, h^{-1} \, \mathrm{Mpc}\lesssim s \lesssim 20 \, h^{-1}more »\, \mathrm{Mpc}$. Evidently, once the cosmological information of the quasi-to-nonlinear regime has been harvested, large-scale modes contain only modest additional information about structure growth. Finally, we compare predictions for the galaxy–galaxy lensing amplitude of the two samples against measurements from SDSS and assess the lensing-is-low effect in light of our findings.« less