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Creators/Authors contains: "vonHoldt, Bridgett M."

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  1. Abstract

    For species of management concern, accurate estimates of inbreeding and associated consequences on reproduction are crucial for predicting their future viability. However, few studies have partitioned this aspect of genetic viability with respect to reproduction in a group-living social mammal. We investigated the contributions of foundation stock lineages, putative fitness consequences of inbreeding, and genetic diversity of the breeding versus nonreproductive segment of the Yellowstone National Park gray wolf population. Our dataset spans 25 years and seven generations since reintroduction, encompassing 152 nuclear families and 329 litters. We found more than 87% of the pedigree foundation genomes persisted and report influxes of allelic diversity from two translocated wolves from a divergent source in Montana. As expected for group-living species, mean kinship significantly increased over time but with minimal loss of observed heterozygosity. Strikingly, the reproductive portion of the population carried a significantly lower genome-wide inbreeding coefficients, autozygosity, and more rapid decay for linkage disequilibrium relative to the nonbreeding population. Breeding wolves had significantly longer lifespans and lower inbreeding coefficients than nonbreeding wolves. Our model revealed that the number of litters was negatively significantly associated with heterozygosity (R = −0.11). Our findings highlight genetic contributions to fitness, and the importance of the reproductively active individuals in a population to counteract loss of genetic variation in a wild, free-ranging social carnivore. It is crucial for managers to mitigate factors that significantly reduce effective population size and genetic connectivity, which supports the dispersion of genetic variation that aids in rapid evolutionary responses to environmental challenges.

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  2. Coyotes are ubiquitous on the North American landscape as a result of their recent expansion across the continent. They have been documented in the heart of some of the most urbanized cities, such as Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York City. Here, we explored the genomic composition of 16 coyotes in the New York metropolitan area to investigate genomic demography and admixture for urban-dwelling canids in Queens County, New York. We identified moderate-to-high estimates of relatedness among coyotes living in Queens (r = 0.0–0.5) and adjacent neighborhoods, suggestive of a relatively small population. Although we found low background levels of domestic-dog ancestry across most coyotes in our sample (5%), we identified a male suspected to be a first-generation coyote–dog hybrid with 46% dog ancestry, as well as his two putative backcrossed offspring that carried approximately 25% dog ancestry. The male coyote–dog hybrid and one backcrossed offspring each carried two transposable element insertions that are associated with human-directed hypersociability in dogs and gray wolves. An additional, unrelated coyote with little dog ancestry also carried two of these insertions. These genetic patterns suggest that gene flow from domestic dogs may become an increasingly important consideration as coyotes continue to inhabit metropolitan regions. 
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  3. Gojobori, Jun (Ed.)
    Abstract The sterility or inviability of hybrid offspring produced from an interspecific mating results from incompatibilities between parental genotypes that are thought to result from divergence of loci involved in epistatic interactions. However, attributes contributing to the rapid evolution of these regions also complicates their assembly, thus discovery of candidate hybrid sterility loci is difficult and has been restricted to a small number of model systems. Here we reported rapid interspecific divergence at the DXZ4 macrosatellite locus in an interspecific cross between two closely related mammalian species: the domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus) and the Jungle cat (Felis chaus). DXZ4 is an interesting candidate due to its structural complexity, copy number variability, and described role in the critical yet complex biological process of X-chromosome inactivation. However, the full structure of DXZ4 was absent or incomplete in nearly every available mammalian genome assembly given its repetitive complexity. We compared highly continuous genomes for three cat species, each containing a complete DXZ4 locus, and discovered that the felid DXZ4 locus differs substantially from the human ortholog, and that it varies in copy number between cat species. Additionally, we reported expression, methylation, and structural conformation profiles of DXZ4 and the X chromosome during stages of spermatogenesis that have been previously associated with hybrid male sterility. Collectively, these findings suggest a new role for DXZ4 in male meiosis and a proposed mechanism of feline interspecific incompatibility through rapid satellite divergence. 
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  4. Abstract

    The host‐associated microbiome is an important player in the ecology and evolution of species. Despite growing interest in the medical, veterinary, and conservation communities, there remain numerous questions about the primary factors underlying microbiota, particularly in wildlife. We bridged this knowledge gap by leveraging microbial, genetic, and observational data collected in a wild, pedigreed population of gray wolves (Canis lupus) inhabiting Yellowstone National Park. We characterized body site‐specific microbes across six haired and mucosal body sites (and two fecal samples) using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. At the phylum level, we found that the microbiome of gray wolves primarily consists of Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, and Proteobacteria, consistent with previous studies within Mammalia and Canidae. At the genus level, we documented body site‐specific microbiota with functions relevant to microenvironment and local physiological processes. We additionally employed observational and RAD sequencing data to examine genetic, demographic, and environmental correlates of skin and gut microbiota. We surveyed individuals across several levels of pedigree relationships, generations, and social groups, and found that social environment (i.e., pack) and genetic relatedness were two primary factors associated with microbial community composition to differing degrees between body sites. We additionally reported body condition and coat color as secondary factors underlying gut and skin microbiomes, respectively. We concluded that gray wolf microbiota resemble similar host species, differ between body sites, and are shaped by numerous endogenous and exogenous factors. These results provide baseline information for this long‐term study population and yield important insights into the evolutionary history, ecology, and conservation of wild wolves and their associated microbes.

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  5. Abstract

    The host‐associated microbiome is increasingly recognized as a critical player in health and immunity. Recent studies have shown that disruption of commensal microbial communities can contribute to disease pathogenesis and severity. Santa Catalina Island foxes (Urocyon littoralis catalinae) present a compelling system in which to examine microbial dynamics in wildlife due to their depauperate genomic structure and extremely high prevalence of ceruminous gland tumors. Although the precise cause is yet unknown, infection with ear mites (Otodectes cynotis) has been linked to chronic inflammation, which is associated with abnormal cell growth and tumor development. Given the paucity of genomic variation in these foxes, other dimensions of molecular diversity, such as commensal microbes, may be critical to host response and disease pathology. We characterized the host‐associated microbiome across six body sites of Santa Catalina Island foxes, and performed differential abundance testing between healthy and mite‐infected ear canals. We found that mite infection was significantly associated with reduced microbial diversity and evenness, with the opportunistic pathogenStaphylococcus pseudintermediusdominating the ear canal community. These results suggest that secondary bacterial infection may contribute to the sustained inflammation associated with tumor development. As the emergence of antibiotic resistant strains remains a concern of the medical, veterinary, and conservation communities, uncovering high relative abundance ofS. pseudintermediusprovides critical insight into the pathogenesis of this complex system. Through use of culture‐independent sequencing techniques, this study contributes to the broader effort of applying a more inclusive understanding of molecular diversity to questions within wildlife disease ecology.

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  6. Abstract

    Urbanization is driving environmental change on a global scale, creating novel environments for wildlife to colonize. Through a combination of stochastic and selective processes, urbanization is also driving evolutionary change. For instance, difficulty in traversing human‐modified landscapes may isolate newly established populations from rural sources, while novel selective pressures, such as altered disease risk, toxicant exposure, and light pollution, may further diverge populations through local adaptation. Assessing the evolutionary consequences of urban colonization and the processes underlying them is a principle aim of urban evolutionary ecology. In the present study, we revisited the genetic effects of urbanization on red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) that colonized Zurich, Switzerland. Through use of genome‐wide single nucleotide polymorphisms and microsatellite markers linked to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), we expanded upon a previous neutral microsatellite study to assess population structure, characterize patterns of genetic diversity, and detect outliers associated with urbanization. Our results indicated the presence of one large evolutionary cluster, with substructure evident between geographic sampling areas. In urban foxes, we observed patterns of neutral and functional diversity consistent with founder events and reported increased differentiation between populations separated by natural and anthropogenic barriers. We additionally reported evidence of selection acting on MHC‐linked markers and identified outlier loci with putative gene functions related to energy metabolism, behavior, and immunity. We concluded that demographic processes primarily drove patterns of diversity, with outlier tests providing preliminary evidence of possible urban adaptation. This study contributes to our overall understanding of urban colonization ecology and emphasizes the value of combining datasets when examining evolutionary change in an increasingly urban world.

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  7. Abstract

    Hybrid zones typically contain novel gene combinations that can be tested by natural selection in a unique genetic context. Parental haplotypes that increase fitness can introgress beyond the hybrid zone, into the range of parental species. We used the Affymetrix canineSNPgenotyping array to identify genomic regions tagged by multiple ancestry informative markers that are more frequent in an admixed population than expected. We surveyed a hybrid zone formed in the last 100 years as coyotes expanded their range into eastern North America. Concomitant with expansion, coyotes hybridized with wolves and some populations became more wolflike, such that coyotes in the northeast have the largest body size of any coyote population. Using a set of 3102 ancestry informative markers, we identified 60 differentially introgressed regions in 44 canines across this admixture zone. These regions are characterized by an excess of exogenous ancestry and, in northeastern coyotes, are enriched for genes affecting body size and skeletal proportions. Further, introgressed wolf‐derived alleles have penetrated into SouthernUScoyote populations. Because no wolves currently exist in this area, these alleles are unlikely to have originated from recent hybridization. Instead, they probably originated from intraspecific gene flow or ancient admixture. We show that grey wolf and coyote admixture has far‐reaching effects and, in addition to phenotypically transforming admixed populations, allows for the differential movement of alleles from different parental species to be tested in new genomic backgrounds.

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  8. Abstract

    Aggression is a quantitative trait deeply entwined with individual fitness. Mapping the genomic architecture underlying such traits is complicated by complex inheritance patterns, social structure, pedigree information and gene pleiotropy. Here, we leveraged the pedigree of a reintroduced population of grey wolves (Canis lupus) in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA, to examine the heritability of and the genetic variation associated with aggression. Since their reintroduction, many ecological and behavioural aspects have been documented, providing unmatched records of aggressive behaviour across multiple generations of a wild population of wolves. Using a linear mixed model, a robust genetic relationship matrix, 12,288 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 111 wolves, we estimated the SNP‐based heritability of aggression to be 37% and an additional 14% of the phenotypic variation explained by shared environmental exposures. We identified 598 SNP genotypes from 425 grey wolves to resolve a consensus pedigree that was included in a heritability analysis of 141 individuals with SNP genotype, metadata and aggression data. The pedigree‐based heritability estimate for aggression is 14%, and an additional 16% of the phenotypic variation was explained by shared environmental exposures. We find strong effects of breeding status and relative pack size on aggression. Through an integrative approach, these results provide a framework for understanding the genetic architecture of a complex trait that influences individual fitness, with linkages to reproduction, in a social carnivore. Along with a few other studies, we show here the incredible utility of a pedigreed natural population for dissecting a complex, fitness‐related behavioural trait.

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