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  1. Abstract Background

    Although there have been numerous studies describing plant growth systems for root exudate collection, a common limitation is that these systems require disruption of the plant root system to facilitate exudate collection. Here, we present a newly designed semi-hydroponic system that uses glass beads as solid support to simulate soil impedance, which combined with drip irrigation, facilitates growth of healthy maize plants, collection and analysis of root exudates, and phenotyping of the roots with minimal growth disturbance or root damage.

    Results

    This system was used to collect root exudates from seven maize genotypes using water or 1 mM CaCl2, and to measure root phenotype data using standard methods and the Digital imaging of root traits (DIRT) software. LC–MS/MS (Liquid Chromatography—Tandem Mass Spectrometry) and GC–MS (Gas Chromatography—Mass Spectrometry) targeted metabolomics platforms were used to detect and quantify metabolites in the root exudates. Phytohormones, some of which are reported in maize root exudates for the first time, the benzoxazinoid DIMBOA (2,4-Dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one), amino acids, and sugars were detected and quantified. After validating the methodology using known concentrations of standards for the targeted compounds, we found that the choice of the exudate collection solution affected the exudation and analysis of a subset of analyzed metabolites. Nomore »differences between collection in water or CaCl2were found for phytohormones and sugars. In contrast, the amino acids were more concentrated when water was used as the exudate collection solution. The collection in CaCl2required a clean-up step before MS analysis which was found to interfere with the detection of a subset of the amino acids. Finally, using the phenotypic measurements and the metabolite data, significant differences between genotypes were found and correlations between metabolites and phenotypic traits were identified.

    Conclusions

    A new plant growth system combining glass beads supported hydroponics with semi-automated drip irrigation of sterile solutions was implemented to grow maize plants and collect root exudates without disturbing or damaging the roots. The validated targeted exudate metabolomics platform combined with root phenotyping provides a powerful tool to link plant root and exudate phenotypes to genotype and study the natural variation of plant populations.

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  2. Abstract

    Classical genetic studies have identified many cases of pleiotropy where mutations in individual genes alter many different phenotypes. Quantitative genetic studies of natural genetic variants frequently examine one or a few traits, limiting their potential to identify pleiotropic effects of natural genetic variants. Widely adopted community association panels have been employed by plant genetics communities to study the genetic basis of naturally occurring phenotypic variation in a wide range of traits. High-density genetic marker data—18M markers—from 2 partially overlapping maize association panels comprising 1,014 unique genotypes grown in field trials across at least 7 US states and scored for 162 distinct trait data sets enabled the identification of of 2,154 suggestive marker-trait associations and 697 confident associations in the maize genome using a resampling-based genome-wide association strategy. The precision of individual marker-trait associations was estimated to be 3 genes based on a reference set of genes with known phenotypes. Examples were observed of both genetic loci associated with variation in diverse traits (e.g., above-ground and below-ground traits), as well as individual loci associated with the same or similar traits across diverse environments. Many significant signals are located near genes whose functions were previously entirely unknown or estimated purely viamore »functional data on homologs. This study demonstrates the potential of mining community association panel data using new higher-density genetic marker sets combined with resampling-based genome-wide association tests to develop testable hypotheses about gene functions, identify potential pleiotropic effects of natural genetic variants, and study genotype-by-environment interaction.

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  3. Abstract Rapid development of transcriptome sequencing technologies has resulted in a data revolution and emergence of new approaches to study transcriptomic regulation such as alternative splicing, alternative polyadenylation, CRISPR knockout screening in addition to the regular gene expression. A full characterization of the transcriptional landscape of different groups of cells or tissues holds enormous potential for both basic science as well as clinical applications. Although many methods have been developed in the realm of differential gene expression analysis, they all geared towards a particular type of sequencing data and failed to perform well when applied in different types of transcriptomic data. To fill this gap, we offer a negative beta binomial t-test (NBBt-test). NBBt-test provides multiple functions to perform differential analyses of alternative splicing, polyadenylation, CRISPR knockout screening, and gene expression datasets. Both real and large-scale simulation data show superior performance of NBBt-test with higher efficiency, and lower type I error rate and FDR to identify differential isoforms and differentially expressed genes and differential CRISPR knockout screening genes with different sample sizes when compared against the current very popular statistical methods. An R-package implementing NBBt-test is available for downloading from CRAN ( https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=NBBttest ).
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 19, 2023
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 5, 2023
  6. The root-associated microbiome (rhizobiome) affects plant health, stress tolerance, and nutrient use efficiency. However, it remains unclear to what extent the composition of the rhizobiome is governed by intraspecific variation in host plant genetics in the field and the degree to which host plant selection can reshape the composition of the rhizobiome. Here, we quantify the rhizosphere microbial communities associated with a replicated diversity panel of 230 maize ( Zea mays L .) genotypes grown in agronomically relevant conditions under high N (+N) and low N (-N) treatments. We analyze the maize rhizobiome in terms of 150 abundant and consistently reproducible microbial groups and we show that the abundance of many root-associated microbes is explainable by natural genetic variation in the host plant, with a greater proportion of microbial variance attributable to plant genetic variation in -N conditions. Population genetic approaches identify signatures of purifying selection in the maize genome associated with the abundance of several groups of microbes in the maize rhizobiome. Genome-wide association study was conducted using the abundance of microbial groups as rhizobiome traits, and n=622 plant loci were identified that are linked to the abundance of n=104 microbial groups in the maize rhizosphere. In 62/104 cases,more »which is more than expected by chance, the abundance of these same microbial groups was correlated with variation in plant vigor indicators derived from high throughput phenotyping of the same field experiment. We provide comprehensive datasets about the three-way interaction of host genetics, microbe abundance, and plant performance under two N treatments to facilitate targeted experiments toward harnessing the full potential of root-associated microbial symbionts in maize production.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 27, 2023
  7. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 27, 2023
  8. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 12, 2023
  9. Claesen, Jan (Ed.)
    ABSTRACT Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. The dysbiotic gut microbiota and its metabolite secretions play a significant role in CRC development and progression. In this study, we identified microbial and metabolic biomarkers applicable to CRC using a meta-analysis of metagenomic datasets from diverse geographical regions. We used LEfSe, random forest (RF), and co-occurrence network methods to identify microbial biomarkers. Geographic dataset-specific markers were identified and evaluated using area under the ROC curve (AUC) scores and random effect size. Co-occurrence networks analysis showed a reduction in the overall microbial associations and the presence of oral pathogenic microbial clusters in CRC networks. Analysis of predicted metabolites from CRC datasets showed the enrichment of amino acids, cadaverine, and creatine in CRC, which were positively correlated with CRC-associated microbes ( Peptostreptococcus stomatis , Gemella morbillorum , Bacteroides fragilis , Parvimonas spp., Fusobacterium nucleatum , Solobacterium moorei , and Clostridium symbiosum ), and negatively correlated with control-associated microbes. Conversely, butyrate, nicotinamide, choline, tryptophan, and 2-hydroxybutanoic acid showed positive correlations with control-associated microbes ( P < 0.05). Overall, our study identified a set of global CRC biomarkers that are reproducible across geographic regions. We also reported significant differential metabolitesmore »and microbe-metabolite interactions associated with CRC. This study provided significant insights for further investigations leading to the development of noninvasive CRC diagnostic tools and therapeutic interventions. IMPORTANCE Several studies showed associations between gut dysbiosis and CRC. Yet, the results are not conclusive due to cohort-specific associations that are influenced by genomic, dietary, and environmental stimuli and associated reproducibility issues with various analysis approaches. Emerging evidence suggests the role of microbial metabolites in modulating host inflammation and DNA damage in CRC. However, the experimental validations have been hindered by cost, resources, and cumbersome technical expertise required for metabolomic investigations. In this study, we performed a meta-analysis of CRC microbiota data from diverse geographical regions using multiple methods to achieve reproducible results. We used a computational approach to predict the metabolomic profiles using existing CRC metagenomic datasets. We identified a reliable set of CRC-specific biomarkers from this analysis, including microbial and metabolite markers. In addition, we revealed significant microbe-metabolite associations through correlation analysis and microbial gene families associated with dysregulated metabolic pathways in CRC, which are essential in understanding the vastly sporadic nature of CRC development and progression.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 29, 2023
  10. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023