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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2023
  2. A capacitance increase phenomenon is observed for MoO 3 electrodes synthesized via a sol-gel process in the presence of dopamine hydrochloride (Dopa HCl) as compared to α-MoO 3 electrodes in 5M ZnCl 2 aqueous electrolyte. The synthesis approach is based on a hydrogen peroxide-initiated sol-gel reaction to which the Dopa HCl is added. The powder precursor (Dopa) x MoO y , is isolated from the metastable gel using freeze-drying. Hydrothermal treatment (HT) of the precursor results in the formation of MoO 3 accompanied by carbonization of the organic molecules; designated as HT-MoO 3 /C. HT of the precipitate formed in the absence of dopamine in the reaction produced α-MoO 3 , which was used as a reference material in this study (α-MoO 3 -ref). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images show a nanobelt morphology for both HT-MoO 3 /C and α-MoO 3 -ref powders, but with distinct differences in the shape of the nanobelts. The presence of carbonaceous content in the structure of HT-MoO 3 /C is confirmed by FTIR and Raman spectroscopy measurements. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Rietveld refinement analysis demonstrate the presence of α-MoO 3 and h-MoO 3 phases in the structure of HT-MoO 3 /C. The increased specificmore »capacitance delivered by the HT-MoO 3 /C electrode as compared to the α-MoO 3 -ref electrode in 5M ZnCl 2 electrolyte in a −0.25–0.70 V vs. Ag/AgCl potential window triggered a more detailed study in an expanded potential window. In the 5M ZnCl 2 electrolyte at a scan rate of 2 mV s −1 , the HT-MoO 3 /C electrode shows a second cycle capacitance of 347.6 F g −1 . The higher electrochemical performance of the HT-MoO 3 /C electrode can be attributed to the presence of carbon in its structure, which can facilitate electron transport. Our study provides a new route for further development of metal oxides for energy storage applications.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 19, 2023
  3. Chemically preintercalated dopamine (DOPA) molecules were used as both reducing agent and carbon precursor to prepare δ-V2O5∙nH2O/C, H2V3O8/C, VO2(B)/C and V2O3/C nanocomposites via hydrothermal treatment or hydrothermal treatment followed by annealing under Ar flow. We found that the phase composition and morphology of the produced composites are influenced by the DOPA:V2O5 ratio used to synthesize (DOPA)xV2O5 precursors through DOPA diffusion into the interlayer region of δ-V2O5∙nH2O framework. The increase of DOPA concentration in the reaction mixture led to more pronounced reduction of vanadium and a higher fraction of carbon in the composites’ structure, as evidenced by XPS and Raman spectroscopy measurements. The electrochemical charge storage properties of the synthesized nanocomposites were evaluated in Li-ion cells with non-aqueous electrolyte. δ-V2O5∙nH2O/C, H2V3O8/C, VO2(B)/C, and V2O3/C electrodes delivered high initial capacities of 214, 252, 279, and 637 mAh·g–1, respectively. The insights provided by this investigation open up the possibility of creating new nanocomposite oxide/carbon electrodes for a variety of applications such as energy storage, sensing and electrochromic devices.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 19, 2023
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023