skip to main content


The NSF Public Access Repository (NSF-PAR) system and access will be unavailable from 10:00 PM ET on Friday, December 8 until 2:00 AM ET on Saturday, December 9 due to maintenance. We apologize for the inconvenience.

Search for: All records

Award ID contains: 1628974

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. Both entangled and unentangled polymer melts exhibit stress overshoots when subject to shearing flow. The size of the overshoot depends on the applied shear rate and is related to relaxation mechanisms such as reptation, chain stretch, and convective constraint release. Previous experimental work shows that melts subjected to interrupted shear flows exhibit a smaller overshoot when sheared after partial relaxation. This has been shown to be consistent with predictions by constitutive models. Here, we report molecular dynamics simulations of interrupted shear of polymer melts where the shear flow after the relaxation stage is orthogonal to the originally applied flow. We observe that, for a given relaxation time, the size of the stress overshoot under orthogonal interrupted shear is larger than observed during parallel interrupted shear, which is not captured by constitutive models. Differences in maxima are also observed for overshoots in the first normal stress and chain end-to-end distance. We also show that measurements of the average number of entanglements per chain and average orientation at different scales along the chain are affected by the change in shear direction, leading to nonmonotonic relaxation of the off-diagonal components of orientation and an appearance of a “double peak” in the average number of entanglements during the transient. We propose that such complex behavior of entanglements is responsible for the increase in the overshoots of stress components and that models of the dynamics of entanglements might be improved upon by considering a tensorial measurement of entanglements that can be coupled to orientation. 
    more » « less
  2. null (Ed.)
  3. null (Ed.)
  4. null (Ed.)
    It is widely known that the printing quality of fused filament fabrication (FFF) is heavily affected by environmental temperature and humidity, taking the form of warping and porosity. However, there is little understanding about the quantitative relations between environmental conditions, geometry, and the mechanical properties of printed parts. In this study, we systematically investigated those relations using bisphenol A polycarbonate as a model material system. For the environmental temperature, an in-situ infrared imaging analysis revealed the presence of an up to 5.4 °C/mm thermal gradient when printing using an open-chamber printer and a heated build plate. For the environmental humidity, an analysis of X-ray micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) scans showed an up to 11.7% porosity that was brought by polymer water content absorbed from environmental moisture. Meanwhile, tensile tests showed a mechanical performance loss associated with those defects, but, surprisingly, the transverse direction ductility had the potential to increase at a higher porosity. Furthermore, the experimental results were combined with analytical and parametrical studies to elucidate quantitative relations between environmental conditions and printing quality. Based on the results, quantitative guidelines for the estimation of printing quality based on environmental conditions are provided that would also help users to obtain desired printing results with a better understanding of the effects of environmental conditions. 
    more » « less