Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher.
Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?
Some links on this page may take you to nonfederal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

The momentum and energy exchanges at the ocean surface are central factors determining the sea state, weather patterns and climate. To investigate the effects of surface waves on the air–sea energy exchanges, we analyse highresolution laboratory measurements of the airflow velocity acquired above windgenerated surface waves using the particle image velocimetry technique. The velocity fields were further decomposed into the mean, wavecoherent and turbulent components, and the corresponding energy budgets were explored in detail. We specifically focused on the terms of the budget equations that represent turbulence production, wave production and wave–turbulence interactions. Over wind waves, the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) production is positive at all heights with a sharp peak near the interface, indicating the transfer of energy from the mean shear to the turbulence. Away from the surface, however, the TKE production approaches zero. Similarly, the wave kinetic energy (WKE) production is positive in the lower portion of the wave boundary layer (WBL), representing the transfer of energy from the mean flow to the wavecoherent field. In the upper part of the WBL, WKE production becomes slightly negative, wherein the energy is transferred from the wave perturbation to the mean flow. The viscous and Stokes sublayer heights emergemore »

The smallscale physics within the first centimetres above the wavy air–sea interface are the gateway for transfers of momentum and scalars between the atmosphere and the ocean. We present an experimental investigation of the surface wind stress over laboratory windgenerated waves. Measurements were performed at the University of Delaware's large windwavecurrent facility using a recently developed stateoftheart windwave imaging system. The system was deployed at a fetch of 22.7 m, with wind speeds from 2.19 to $16.63\ \textrm {m}\ \textrm {s}^{1}$ . Airflow velocity fields were acquired using particle image velocimetry above the wind waves down to $100\ \mathrm {\mu }\textrm {m}$ above the surface, and wave profiles were detected using laserinduced fluorescence. The airflow intermittently separates downwind of wave crests, starting at wind speeds as low as $2.19\ \textrm {m}\ \textrm {s}^{1}$ . Such events are accompanied by a dramatic drop in tangential viscous stress past the wave's crest, and a gradual regeneration of the viscous sublayer upon the following (downwind) crest. This contrasts with nonairflow separating waves, where the surface viscous stress drop is less significant. Airflow separation becomes increasingly dominant with increasing wind speed and wave slope $a k$ (where $a$ and $k$ are peak wave amplitudemore »

The air–sea momentum exchanges in the presence of surface waves play an integral role in coupling the atmosphere and the ocean. In the current study, we present a detailed laboratory investigation of the momentum fluxes over windgenerated waves. Experiments were performed in the large windwave facility at the Air–Sea Interaction Laboratory of the University of Delaware. Airflow velocity measurements were acquired above wind waves using a combination of particle image velocimetry and laserinduced fluorescence techniques. The momentum budget is examined using a wavefollowing orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system. In the wave boundary layer, the phaseaveraged turbulent stress is intense (weak) and positive downwind (upwind) of the crests. The waveinduced stress is also positive on the windward and leeward sides of wave crests but with asymmetric intensities. These regions of positive wave stress are intertwined with regions of negative wave stress just above wave crests and downwind of wave troughs. Likewise, at the interface, the viscous stress exhibits alongwave phaselocked variations with maxima upwind of the wave crests. As a general trend, the mean profiles of the waveinduced stress decrease to a negative minimum from a nearzero value far from the surface and then increase rapidly to a positive value near themore »

The development of the governing equations for fluid flow in a surfacefollowing coordinate system is essential to investigate the fluid flow near an interface deformed by propagating waves. In this paper, the governing equations of fluid flow, including conservation of mass, momentum and energy balance, are derived in an orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system relevant to surface water waves. All equations are further decomposed to extract mean, waveinduced and turbulent components. The complete transformed equations include explicit extra geometric terms. For example, turbulent stress and production terms include the effects of coordinate curvature on the structure of fluid flow. Furthermore, the governing equations of motion were further simplified by considering the flow over periodic quasilinear surface waves wherein the wavelength of the disturbance is large compared to the wave amplitude. The quasilinear analysis is employed to express the boundary layer equations in the orthogonal wavefollowing curvilinear coordinates with the corresponding decomposed equations for the mean, wave and turbulent fields. Finally, the vorticity equations are also derived in the orthogonal curvilinear coordinates in order to express the corresponding velocity–vorticity formulations. The equations developed in this paper proved to be useful in the analysis and interpretation of experimental data of fluid flow overmore »