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  1. Abstract

    The field of connectomics aims to reconstruct the wiring diagram of Neurons and synapses to enable new insights into the workings of the brain. Reconstructing and analyzing the Neuronal connectivity, however, relies on many individual steps, starting from high‐resolution data acquisition to automated segmentation, proofreading, interactive data exploration, and circuit analysis. All of these steps have to handle large and complex datasets and rely on or benefit from integrated visualization methods. In this state‐of‐the‐art report, we describe visualization methods that can be applied throughout the connectomics pipeline, from data acquisition to circuit analysis. We first define the different steps of the pipeline and focus on how visualization is currently integrated into these steps. We also survey open science initiatives in connectomics, including usable open‐source tools and publicly available datasets. Finally, we discuss open challenges and possible future directions of this exciting research field.

     
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  2. Abstract

    Attention control is a basic behavioral process that has been studied for decades. The currently best models of attention control are deep networks trained on free-viewing behavior to predict bottom-up attention control – saliency. We introduce COCO-Search18, the first dataset of laboratory-qualitygoal-directed behaviorlarge enough to train deep-network models. We collected eye-movement behavior from 10 people searching for each of 18 target-object categories in 6202 natural-scene images, yielding$$\sim$$300,000 search fixations. We thoroughly characterize COCO-Search18, and benchmark it using three machine-learning methods: a ResNet50 object detector, a ResNet50 trained on fixation-density maps, and an inverse-reinforcement-learning model trained on behavioral search scanpaths. Models were also trained/tested on images transformed to approximate a foveated retina, a fundamental biological constraint. These models, each having a different reliance on behavioral training, collectively comprise the new state-of-the-art in predicting goal-directed search fixations. Our expectation is that future work using COCO-Search18 will far surpass these initial efforts, finding applications in domains ranging from human-computer interactive systems that can anticipate a person’s intent and render assistance to the potentially early identification of attention-related clinical disorders (ADHD, PTSD, phobia) based on deviation from neurotypical fixation behavior.

     
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  3. Spatial information understanding is fundamental to visual perception in metaverse. 
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  4. Automatedanalysisofopticalcolonoscopy(OC)videoframes (to assist endoscopists during OC) is challenging due to variations in color, lighting, texture, and specular reflections. Previous methods ei- ther remove some of these variations via preprocessing (making pipelines cumbersome) or add diverse training data with annotations (but expen- sive and time-consuming). We present CLTS-GAN, a new deep learning model that gives fine control over color, lighting, texture, and specular reflection synthesis for OC video frames. We show that adding these colonoscopy-specific augmentations to the training data can improve state-of-the-art polyp detection/segmentation methods as well as drive next generation of OC simulators for training medical students. The code and pre-trained models for CLTS-GAN are available on Computational Endoscopy Platform GitHub (https://github.com/nadeemlab/CEP). 
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  5. Two-dimensional space embeddings such as Multi-Dimensional Scaling (MDS) are a popular means to gain insight into high-dimensional data relationships. However, in all but the simplest cases these embeddings suffer from significant distortions, which can lead to misinterpretations of the high-dimensional data. These distortions occur both at the global inter-cluster and the local intra-cluster levels. The former leads to misinterpretation of the distances between the various N-D cluster populations, while the latter hampers the appreciation of their individual shapes and composition, which we call cluster appearance. The distortion of cluster appearance incurred in the 2-D embedding is unavoidable since such low-dimensional embeddings always come at the loss of some of the intra-cluster variance. In this paper, we propose techniques to overcome these limitations by conveying the N-D cluster appearance via a framework inspired by illustrative design. Here we make use of Scagnostics which offers a set of intuitive feature descriptors to describe the appearance of 2-D scatterplots. We extend the Scagnostics analysis to N-D and then devise and test via crowd-sourced user studies a set of parameterizable texture patterns that map to the various Scagnostics descriptors. Finally, we embed these N-D Scagnostics-informed texture patterns into shapes derived from N-D statistics to yield what we call Cluster Appearance Glyphs. We demonstrate our framework with a dataset acquired to analyze program execution times in file systems. 
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