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  1. Modern web applications are distributed across a browser-based client and a cloud-based server. Distribution provides access to remote resources, accessed over the web and shared by clients. Much of the complexity of inspecting and evolving web applications lies in their distributed nature. Also, the majority of mature program analysis and transformation tools works only with centralized software. Inspired by business process re-engineering, in which remote operations can be insourced back in house to restructure and outsource anew, we bring an analogous approach to the re-engineering of web applications. Our target domain are full-stack JavaScript applications that implement both the client and server code in this language. Our approach is enabled by Client Insourcing, a novel automatic refactoring that creates a semantically equivalent centralized version of a distributed application. This centralized version is then inspected, modified, and redistributed to meet new requirements. After describing the design and implementation of Client Insourcing, we demonstrate its utility and value in addressing changes in security, reliability, and performance requirements. By reducing the complexity of the non-trivial program inspection and evolution tasks performed to meet these requirements, our approach can become a helpful aid in the re-engineering of web applications in this domain. 
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