skip to main content

Search for: All records

Award ID contains: 1652992

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. Abstract

    Human cerebellum consists of high density and complexity of neurons. Thus, it is challenging to differentiate cerebellar-like organoids with similar cellular markers and function to the human brain. Our previous study showed that the combination of retinoic acid (RA), Wingless/integrated (Wnt) activator, and Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) activator promotes cerebellar differentiation from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). This study examined phenotypic, metabolic, and biogenesis in early cerebellar development. Cerebellum spheroids were differentiated from human iPSK3 cells. During day 7–14, RA and Wnt activator CHIR99021 were used and SHH activator purmorphamine (PMR) was added later to promote ventralization. Gene expression for early cerebellar layer markers, metabolism, and extracellular vesicle (EV) biogenesis were characterized. Zinc-induced neurotoxicity was investigated as a proof-of-concept of neurotoxicity study. Flow cytometry results showed that there was no significant difference in NEPH3, PTF1A, OLIG2, and MATH1 protein expression between RCP (RA-CHIR-PMR) versus the control condition. However, the expression of cerebellar genes for the molecular layer (BHLE22), the granule cell layer (GABRB2,PAX6,TMEM266,KCNIP4), the Bergmann glial cells (QK1,DAO), and the Purkinje cell layer (ARHGEF33,KIT,MX1,MYH10,PPP1R17,SCGN) was significantly higher in the RCP condition than the control. The shift in metabolic pathways toward glycolysis was observed for RCP condition. The EV biogenesis marker expression was retained. Mild zinc-induced neurotoxicity may exist when zinc exposure exceeds 1.0 µM. RCP treatment can promote specific cerebellar-like differentiation from hiPSCs indicated by gene expression of early cerebellar markers and regionally enriched genes. The higher cerebellar marker expression is accompanied by the elevated glycolysis with the retained EV biogenesis. This study should advance the understanding of biomarkers during early cerebellar development for cerebellum organoid engineering and neurotoxicity study.

    more » « less
  2. Abstract

    Human cerebral organoids derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) provide novel tools for recapitulating the cytoarchitecture of human brain and for studying biological mechanisms of neurological disorders. However, the heterotypic interactions of neurovascular units, composed of neurons, pericytes, astrocytes, and brain microvascular endothelial cells, in brain-like tissues are less investigated. The objective of this study is to investigate the impacts of neural spheroids and vascular spheroids interactions on the regional brain-like tissue patterning in cortical spheroids derived from human iPSCs. Hybrid neurovascular spheroids were constructed by fusion of human iPSC-derived cortical neural progenitor cell (iNPC) spheroids, endothelial cell (iEC) spheroids, and the supporting human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Single hybrid spheroids were constructed at different iNPC: iEC: MSC ratios of 4:2:0, 3:2:1 2:2:2, and 1:2:3 in low-attachment 96-well plates. The incorporation of MSCs upregulated the secretion levels of cytokines VEGF-A, PGE2, and TGF-β1 in hybrid spheroid system. In addition, tri-cultured spheroids had high levels of TBR1 (deep cortical layer VI) and Nkx2.1 (ventral cells), and matrix remodeling genes, MMP2 and MMP3, as well as Notch-1, indicating the crucial role of matrix remodeling and cell-cell communications on cortical spheroid and organoid patterning. Moreover, tri-culture system elevated blood-brain barrier gene expression (e.g., GLUT-1), CD31, and tight junction protein ZO1 expression. Treatment with AMD3100, a CXCR4 antagonist, showed the immobilization of MSCs during spheroid fusion, indicating a CXCR4-dependent manner of hMSC migration and homing. This forebrain-like model has potential applications in understanding heterotypic cell-cell interactions and novel drug screening in diseased human brain.

    more » « less
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2025
  4. The choroid plexus (ChP) is a complex structure in the human brain that is responsible for the secretion of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and forming the blood–CSF barrier (B-CSF-B). Human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have shown promising results in the formation of brain organoids in vitro; however, very few studies to date have generated ChP organoids. In particular, no study has assessed the inflammatory response and the extracellular vesicle (EV) biogenesis of hiPSC-derived ChP organoids. In this study, the impacts of Wnt signaling on the inflammatory response and EV biogenesis of ChP organoids derived from hiPSCs was investigated. During days 10–15, bone morphogenetic protein 4 was added along with (+/−) CHIR99021 (CHIR, a small molecule GSK-3β inhibitor that acts as a Wnt agonist). At day 30, the ChP organoids were characterized by immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry for TTR (~72%) and CLIC6 (~20%) expression. Compared to the −CHIR group, the +CHIR group showed an upregulation of 6 out of 10 tested ChP genes, including CLIC6 (2-fold), PLEC (4-fold), PLTP (2–4-fold), DCN (~7-fold), DLK1 (2–4-fold), and AQP1 (1.4-fold), and a downregulation of TTR (0.1-fold), IGFBP7 (0.8-fold), MSX1 (0.4-fold), and LUM (0.2–0.4-fold). When exposed to amyloid beta 42 oligomers, the +CHIR group had a more sensitive response as evidenced by the upregulation of inflammation-related genes such as TNFα, IL-6, and MMP2/9 when compared to the −CHIR group. Developmentally, the EV biogenesis markers of ChP organoids showed an increase over time from day 19 to day 38. This study is significant in that it provides a model of the human B-CSF-B and ChP tissue for the purpose of drug screening and designing drug delivery systems to treat neurological disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease and ischemic stroke. 
    more » « less
  5. The significant roles of extracellular vesicles (EVs) as intracellular mediators, disease biomarkers, and therapeutic agents, make them a scientific hotspot. In particular, EVs secreted by human stem cells show significance in treating neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease and ischemic stroke. However, the clinical applications of EVs are limited due to their poor targeting capabilities and low therapeutic efficacies after intravenous administration. Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles are biocompatible and have been shown to improve the targeting ability of EVs. In particular, ultrasmall SPIO (USPIO, <50 nm) are more suitable for labeling nanoscale EVs due to their small size. In this study, induced forebrain neural progenitor cortical organoids (iNPCo) were differentiated from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), and the iNPCo expressed FOXG1, Nkx2.1, α-catenin, as well as β-tubulin III. EVs were isolated from iNPCo media, then loaded with USPIOs by sonication. Size and concentration of EV particles were measured by nanoparticle tracking analysis, and no significant changes were observed in size distribution before and after sonication, but the concentration decreased after labeling. miR-21 and miR-133b decreased after sonication. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated contrast visualized for the USPIO labeled EVs embedded in agarose gel phantoms. Upon calculation, USPIO labeled EVs exhibited considerably shorter relaxation times, quantified as T2 and T2* values, reducing the signal intensity and generating higher MRI contrast compared to unlabeled EVs and gel only. Our study demonstrated that USPIO labeling was a feasible approach for in vitro tracking of brain organoid-derived EVs, which paves the way for further in vivo examination. 
    more » « less
  6. Retinal organoids are three-dimensional (3D) structures derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) that mimic the retina’s spatial and temporal differentiation, making them useful as in vitro retinal development models. Retinal organoids can be assembled with brain organoids, the 3D self-assembled aggregates derived from hPSCs containing different cell types and cytoarchitectures that resemble the human embryonic brain. Recent studies have shown the development of optic cups in brain organoids. The cellular components of a developing optic vesicle-containing organoids include primitive corneal epithelial and lens-like cells, retinal pigment epithelia, retinal progenitor cells, axon-like projections, and electrically active neuronal networks. The importance of retinal organoids in ocular diseases such as age-related macular degeneration, Stargardt disease, retinitis pigmentosa, and diabetic retinopathy are described in this review. This review highlights current developments in retinal organoid techniques, and their applications in ocular conditions such as disease modeling, gene therapy, drug screening and development. In addition, recent advancements in utilizing extracellular vesicles secreted by retinal organoids for ocular disease treatments are summarized. 
    more » « less
  7. null (Ed.)
  8. null (Ed.)