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  1. Zonta, Daniele ; Su, Zhongqing ; Glisic, Branko (Ed.)
    Active structural control of civil infrastructure in response to large external loads, such as earthquake or wind, requires the rapid integration of information between sensing nodes, computational nodes, and actuating nodes. Because of this, it is still not widely employed due to several key issues, such as latency in the system and challenges with information exchange. In this study, the Martlet, a high-speed data acquisition and computing node that was designed based on a Texas Instruments Piccolo microcontroller and capable of peer-to-peer wireless communication, is used for all three steps in the active control process. For rapid sensing, the Martlet is equipped with an interface board that interfaces with a displacement transducer and has an on-board differentiating circuit to derive velocity. The sensing Martlet transmits its data (i.e., displacement and velocity) to the actuating Martlet. The actuating Martlet calculates the necessary control force using an optimal control law, the full-state linear quadratic regulator. The resulting control force is then conveyed to the actuator via a controller interface board. This complete process is experimentally validated on a partial-scale, four-story shear structure and it is demonstrated that due to the fast processing speeds of the Martlet, real-time control of the structure canmore »be achieved.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 18, 2023
  2. Zonta, Daniele ; Su, Zhongqing ; Glisic, Branko (Ed.)
    Civil infrastructures are susceptible to damage due to external forces such as winds and earthquakes. These external forces cause damage to buildings and different civil structures. To prevent this, active control systems are executed. These systems use sensors to measure the displacement of the infrastructure, then actuators are utilized to provide a force that counteracts that displacement. In this study, a Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) controller was used to minimize the impact of an earthquake disturbance on multi-story structures. The proportional, integral, and derivative gains of the controller were obtained using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). This PID controller was validated on a simulated five-story structure based on the Kajima Shizuoka building with five ideal actuators. The effectiveness of the PID controller in reducing the seismic response of the structure with regards to inter-story displacement and acceleration was compared to the uncontrolled response of the structure. It is found that the PID controller with PID parameters obtained from the PSO algorithm offers effective control for the simulated five story structure.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 18, 2023
  3. Structural control of civil infrastructure in response to large external loads, such as earthquakes or wind, is not widely employed due to challenges regarding information exchange and the inherent latencies in the system due to complex computations related to the control algorithm. This study employs front-end signal processing at the sensing node to alleviate computations at the control node and results in a simplistic sum of weighted inputs to determine a control force. The control law simplifies to U = WP, where U is the control force, W is a pre-determined weight matrix, and P is a deconstructed representation of the response of the structure to the applied excitation. Determining the optimal weight matrix for this calculation is non-trivial and this study uses the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm with a modified homing feature to converge on a possible solution. To further streamline the control algorithm, various pruning techniques are combined with the PSO algorithm in order to optimize the number of entries in the weight matrix. These optimization techniques are applied in simulation to a five-story structure and the success of the resulting control parameters are quantified based on their ability to minimize the information exchange while maintaining controlmore »effectiveness. It is found that a magnitude-based pruning method, when paired with the PSO algorithm, is able to offer the most effective control for a structure subject to seismic base excitation.« less
  4. Han, Jae-Hung ; Shahab, Shima ; Wang, Gang (Ed.)