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  1. Abstract

    The reduction of a large‐scale symmetric linear discrete ill‐posed problem with multiple right‐hand sides to a smaller problem with a symmetric block tridiagonal matrix can easily be carried out by the application of a small number of steps of the symmetric block Lanczos method. We show that the subdiagonal blocks of the reduced problem converge to zero fairly rapidly with increasing block number. This quick convergence indicates that there is little advantage in expressing the solutions of discrete ill‐posed problems in terms of eigenvectors of the coefficient matrix when compared with using a basis of block Lanczos vectors, which are simpler and cheaper to compute. Similarly, for nonsymmetric linear discrete ill‐posed problems with multiple right‐hand sides, we show that the solution subspace defined by a few steps of the block Golub–Kahan bidiagonalization method usually can be applied instead of the solution subspace determined by the singular value decomposition of the coefficient matrix without significant, if any, reduction of the quality of the computed solution.

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  2. Abstract

    Discrete ill‐posed inverse problems arise in many areas of science and engineering. Their solutions are very sensitive to perturbations in the data. Regularization methods aim at reducing this sensitivity. This article considers an iterative regularization method, based on iterated Tikhonov regularization, that was proposed in M. Donatelli and M. Hanke, Fast nonstationary preconditioned iterative methods for ill‐posed problems, with application to image deblurring,Inverse Problems, 29 (2013), Art. 095008, 16 pages. In this method, the exact operator is approximated by an operator that is easier to work with. However, the convergence theory requires the approximating operator to be spectrally equivalent to the original operator. This condition is rarely satisfied in practice. Nevertheless, this iterative method determines accurate image restorations in many situations. We propose a modification of the iterative method, that relaxes the demand of spectral equivalence to a requirement that is easier to satisfy. We show that, although the modified method is not an iterative regularization method, it maintains one of the most important theoretical properties for this kind of methods, namely monotonic decrease of the reconstruction error. Several computed experiments show the good performances of the proposed method.

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  3. Summary

    The sensitivity of eigenvalues of structured matrices under general or structured perturbations of the matrix entries has been thoroughly studied in the literature. Error bounds are available, and the pseudospectrum can be computed to gain insight. Few investigations have focused on analyzing the sensitivity of eigenvectors under general or structured perturbations. This paper discusses this sensitivity for tridiagonal Toeplitz and Toeplitz‐type matrices.

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    Abstract This paper introduces the notions of chained and semi-chained graphs. The chain of a graph, when existent, refines the notion of bipartivity and conveys important structural information. Also the notion of a center vertex $$v_c$$ v c is introduced. It is a vertex, whose sum of p powers of distances to all other vertices in the graph is minimal, where the distance between a pair of vertices $$\{v_c,v\}$$ { v c , v } is measured by the minimal number of edges that have to be traversed to go from $$v_c$$ v c to v . This concept extends the definition of closeness centrality. Applications in which the center node is important include information transmission and city planning. Algorithms for the identification of approximate central nodes are provided and computed examples are presented. 
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