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  1. Abstract

    The accuracy of a differential thermal analysis (DTA) technique for predicting the temperature range of significant nucleation is examined in a BaO∙2SiO2glass by iterative numerical calculations. The numerical model takes account of time‐dependent nucleation, finite particle size, size‐dependent crystal growth rates, and surface crystallization. The calculations were made using the classical and, for the first time, the diffuse interface theories of nucleation. The results of the calculations are in agreement with experimental measurements, demonstrating the validity of the DTA technique. They show that this is independent of the DTA scan rate used and that surface crystallization has a negligible effect for the glass particle sizes studied. A breakdown of the Stokes‐Einstein relation between viscosity and the diffusion coefficient is demonstrated for low temperatures, near the maximum nucleation rate. However, it is shown that accurate values for the diffusion coefficient can be obtained from the induction time for nucleation and the growth velocity in this temperature range.

  2. Abstract For over 40 years, measurements of the nucleation rates in a large number of silicate glasses have indicated a breakdown in the Classical Nucleation Theory at temperatures below that of the peak nucleation rate. The data show that instead of steadily decreasing with decreasing temperature, the work of critical cluster formation enters a plateau and even starts to increase. Many explanations have been offered to explain this anomaly, but none have provided a satisfactory answer. We present an experimental approach to demonstrate explicitly for the example of a 5BaO ∙ 8SiO 2 glass that the anomaly is not a real phenomenon, but instead an artifact arising from an insufficient heating time at low temperatures. Heating times much longer than previously used at a temperature 50 K below the peak nucleation rate temperature give results that are consistent with the predictions of the Classical Nucleation Theory. These results raise the question of whether the claimed anomaly is also an artifact in other glasses.
  3. Abstract Nucleation is generally viewed as a structural fluctuation that passes a critical size to eventually become a stable emerging new phase. However, this concept leaves out many details, such as changes in cluster composition and competing pathways to the new phase. In this work, both experimental and computer modeling studies are used to understand the cluster composition and pathways. Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics approaches are used to analyze the thermodynamic and kinetic contributions to the nucleation landscape in barium silicate glasses. Experimental techniques examine the resulting polycrystals that form. Both the modeling and experimental data indicate that a silica rich core plays a dominant role in the nucleation process.
  4. Expressions for X-ray absorption and secondary scattering are developed for cylindrical sample geometries. The incident-beam size is assumed to be smaller than the sample and in general directed off-axis onto the cylindrical sample. It is shown that an offset beam has a non-negligible effect on both the absorption and multiple scattering terms, resulting in an asymmetric correction that must be applied to the measured scattering intensities. The integral forms of the corrections are first presented. A small-beam limit is then developed for easier computation.