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  1. null (Ed.)
  2. A severe plastic deformation process, termed accumulative extrusion bonding (AEB), is conceived to steady-state bond metals in the form of multilayered tubes. It is shown that AEB can facilitate bonding of metals in their solid-state, like the process of accumulative roll bonding (ARB). The AEB steps involve iterative extrusion, cutting, expanding, restacking, and annealing. As the process is iterated, the laminated structure layer thicknesses decrease within the tube wall, while the tube wall thickness and outer diameter remain constant. Multilayered bimetallic tubes with approximately 2 mm wall thickness and 25.25 mm outer diameter of copper-aluminum are produced at 52% radial strain per extrusion pass to contain eight layers. Furthermore, tubes of copper-copper are produced at 52% and 68% strain to contain two layers. The amount of bonding at the metal-to-metal interfaces and grain structure are measured using optical microscopy. After detailed examination, only the copper-copper bimetal deformed to 68% strain is found bonded. The yield strength of the copper-copper tube extruded at 68% improves from 83 MPa to 481 MPa; a 480% increase. Surface preparation, as described by the thin film theory, and the amount of deformation imposed per extrusion pass are identified and discussed as key contributors to enact successful metal-to-metal bonding at the interface. Unlike in ARB, bonding in AEB does not occur at ~50% strain revealing the significant role of more complex geometry of tubes relative to sheets in solid-state bonding. 
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  3. null (Ed.)
    The deformation behavior of the extruded magnesium alloys Mg2Nd and Mg2Yb was investigated at room temperature. By using in situ energy-dispersive synchrotron X-ray diffraction compression and tensile tests, accompanied by Elasto-Plastic Self-Consistent (EPSC) modeling, the differences in the active deformation systems were analyzed. Both alloying elements change and weaken the extrusion texture and form precipitates during extrusion and subsequent heat treatments relative to common Mg alloys. By varying the extrusion parameters and subsequent heat treatment, the strengths and ductility can be adjusted over a wide range while still maintaining a strength differential effect (SDE) of close to zero. Remarkably, the compressive and tensile yield strengths are similar and there is no mechanical anisotropy when comparing tensile and compressive deformation, which is desirable for industrial applications. Uncommon for Mg alloys, Mg2Nd shows a low tensile twinning activity during compression tests. We show that heat treatments promote the nucleation and growth of precipitates and increase the yield strengths isotopically up to 200 MPa. The anisotropy of the yield strength is reduced to a minimum and elongations to failure of about 0.2 are still achieved. At lower strengths, elongations to failure of up to 0.41 are reached. In the Mg2Yb alloy, adjusting the extrusion parameters enhances the rare-earth texture and reduces the grain size. Excessive deformation twinning is, however, observed, but despite this the SDE is still minimized. 
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  4. null (Ed.)
    Abstract Lightweight, recyclable, and plentiful Mg alloys are receiving increased attention due to an exceptional combination of strength and ductility not possible from pure Mg. Yet, due to their alloying elements, such as rare-earths or aluminum, they are either not economical or biocompatible. Here we present a new rare-earth and aluminum-free magnesium-based alloy, with trace amounts of Zn, Ca, and Mn (≈ 2% by wt.). We show that the dilute alloy exhibits outstanding high strength and high ductility compared to other dilute Mg alloys. By direct comparison with annealed material of the same chemistry and using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM (HR-TEM) and atom probe tomography analyses, we show that the high strength can be attributed to a number of very fine, Zn/Ca-containing nanoscale precipitates, along with ultra-fine grains. These findings show that forming a hierarchy of nanometer precipitates from just miniscule amounts of solute can invoke simultaneous high strength and ductility, producing an affordable, biocompatible Mg alloy. 
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