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  1. Research about diversity in Construction and Civil Engineering (CCE) has been conducted from both the academic and industrial points of view. Researchers have suggested several strategies to further attract women and ethnic minorities (WEMs) to CCE at both academic and industry levels, mainly due to the skilled labor shortage, as well as to preserve the future success of the U.S. economy. Accordingly, this literature review aims to present the current levels of diversity and inclusion of minorities in CCE at academic and industry levels, while it identifies effective strategies for increasing diversity, recognizes knowledge gaps, and suggests recommendations for futuremore »research. The review is conducted by searching relevant papers from leading construction management and engineering education peer-reviewed publications. The findings indicate that although the low participation of minorities in CCE industries and education has been studied a few times from a gender point of view, it has not received adequate attention from the ethnicity perspective, especially at the academic level. This paper contributes to the body of knowledge by bringing together information related to the underrepresentation of WEMs in CCE academia and workforce environments and identifying the potential reasons for this low participation.« less
  2. The construction industry, one of the largest job providers in the U.S., is suffering from critical problems pertaining to labor shortage in the workforce. The researchers have recognized as a critical issue an insufficient interest and poorly sustained participation in the architecture, engineering, and construction (AEC) industry by underrepresented demographic groups. To address the issue of workforce income inequality and bias, the industry must be able to understand the current situation regarding inequality and pinpoint some of the basic problems. To address this need, this study analyzes current inequality within the construction workforce by race/ethnicity and gender. The preliminary resultsmore »of the study show that White construction workers are, in average, 16.2 times more than African Americans and 3.6 times more than Hispanics in average, African Americans being the least in number in the construction workforce. Also, the study shows that men in construction workforce, on average, earn 4.2% more than women in the years sampled. Our trend analysis shows that these gaps relating to the number of employed personnel and median weekly earnings did not change.« less