skip to main content

Search for: All records

Award ID contains: 1740858

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. We develop a simple Quantile Spacing (QS) method for accurate probabilistic estimation of one-dimensional entropy from equiprobable random samples, and compare it with the popular Bin-Counting (BC) and Kernel Density (KD) methods. In contrast to BC, which uses equal-width bins with varying probability mass, the QS method uses estimates of the quantiles that divide the support of the data generating probability density function (pdf) into equal-probability-mass intervals. And, whereas BC and KD each require optimal tuning of a hyper-parameter whose value varies with sample size and shape of the pdf, QS only requires specification of the number of quantiles tomore »be used. Results indicate, for the class of distributions tested, that the optimal number of quantiles is a fixed fraction of the sample size (empirically determined to be ~0.25–0.35), and that this value is relatively insensitive to distributional form or sample size. This provides a clear advantage over BC and KD since hyper-parameter tuning is not required. Further, unlike KD, there is no need to select an appropriate kernel-type, and so QS is applicable to pdfs of arbitrary shape, including those with discontinuous slope and/or magnitude. Bootstrapping is used to approximate the sampling variability distribution of the resulting entropy estimate, and is shown to accurately reflect the true uncertainty. For the four distributional forms studied (Gaussian, Log-Normal, Exponential and Bimodal Gaussian Mixture), expected estimation bias is less than 1% and uncertainty is low even for samples of as few as 100 data points; in contrast, for KD the small sample bias can be as large as −10% and for BC as large as −50%. We speculate that estimating quantile locations, rather than bin-probabilities, results in more efficient use of the information in the data to approximate the underlying shape of an unknown data generating pdf.« less
  2. We confirm that energy dissipation weighting provides the most accurate approach to determining the effective hydraulic conductivity (Keff) of a binary K grid. A deep learning algorithm (UNET) can infer Keff with extremely high accuracy (R2 > 0.99). The UNET architecture could be trained to infer the energy dissipation weighting pattern from an image of the K distribution, although it was less accurate for cases with highly localized structures that controlled flow. Furthermore, the UNET architecture learned to infer the energy dissipation weighting even if it was not trained directly on this information. However, the weights were represented within themore »UNET in a way that was not immediately interpretable by a human user. This reiterates the idea that even if ML/DL algorithms are trained to make some hydrologic predictions accurately, they must be designed and trained to provide each user-required output if their results are to be used to improve our understanding of hydrologic systems.« less
  3. null (Ed.)