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  1. Lung or heart sound classification is challenging due to the complex nature of audio data, its dynamic properties of time, and frequency domains. It is also very difficult to detect lung or heart conditions with small amounts of data or unbalanced and high noise in data. Furthermore, the quality of data is a considerable pitfall for improving the performance of deep learning. In this paper, we propose a novel feature-based fusion network called FDC-FS for classifying heart and lung sounds. The FDC-FS framework aims to effectively transfer learning from three different deep neural network models built from audio datasets. The innovation of the proposed transfer learning relies on the transformation from audio data to image vectors and from three specific models to one fused model that would be more suitable for deep learning. We used two publicly available datasets for this study, i.e., lung sound data from ICHBI 2017 challenge and heart challenge data. We applied data augmentation techniques, such as noise distortion, pitch shift, and time stretching, dealing with some data issues in these datasets. Importantly, we extracted three unique features from the audio samples, i.e., Spectrogram, MFCC, and Chromagram. Finally, we built a fusion of three optimal convolutional neural network models by feeding the image feature vectors transformed from audio features. We confirmed the superiority of the proposed fusion model compared to the state-of-the-art works. The highest accuracy we achieved with FDC-FS is 99.1% with Spectrogram-based lung sound classification while 97% for Spectrogram and Chromagram based heart sound classification. 
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    Edge intelligence (EI) has received a lot of interest because it can reduce latency, increase efficiency, and preserve privacy. More significantly, as the Internet of Things (IoT) has proliferated, billions of portable and embedded devices have been interconnected, producing zillions of gigabytes on edge networks. Thus, there is an immediate need to push AI (artificial intelligence) breakthroughs within edge networks to achieve the full promise of edge data analytics. EI solutions have supported digital technology workloads and applications from the infrastructure level to edge networks; however, there are still many challenges with the heterogeneity of computational capabilities and the spread of information sources. We propose a novel event-driven deep-learning framework, called EDL-EI (event-driven deep learning for edge intelligence), via the design of a novel event model by defining events using correlation analysis with multiple sensors in real-world settings and incorporating multi-sensor fusion techniques, a transformation method for sensor streams into images, and lightweight 2-dimensional convolutional neural network (CNN) models. To demonstrate the feasibility of the EDL-EI framework, we presented an IoT-based prototype system that we developed with multiple sensors and edge devices. To verify the proposed framework, we have a case study of air-quality scenarios based on the benchmark data provided by the USA Environmental Protection Agency for the most polluted cities in South Korea and China. We have obtained outstanding predictive accuracy (97.65% and 97.19%) from two deep-learning models on the cities’ air-quality patterns. Furthermore, the air-quality changes from 2019 to 2020 have been analyzed to check the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown. 
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