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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2023
  3. A capacitance increase phenomenon is observed for MoO 3 electrodes synthesized via a sol-gel process in the presence of dopamine hydrochloride (Dopa HCl) as compared to α-MoO 3 electrodes in 5M ZnCl 2 aqueous electrolyte. The synthesis approach is based on a hydrogen peroxide-initiated sol-gel reaction to which the Dopa HCl is added. The powder precursor (Dopa) x MoO y , is isolated from the metastable gel using freeze-drying. Hydrothermal treatment (HT) of the precursor results in the formation of MoO 3 accompanied by carbonization of the organic molecules; designated as HT-MoO 3 /C. HT of the precipitate formed inmore »the absence of dopamine in the reaction produced α-MoO 3 , which was used as a reference material in this study (α-MoO 3 -ref). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images show a nanobelt morphology for both HT-MoO 3 /C and α-MoO 3 -ref powders, but with distinct differences in the shape of the nanobelts. The presence of carbonaceous content in the structure of HT-MoO 3 /C is confirmed by FTIR and Raman spectroscopy measurements. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Rietveld refinement analysis demonstrate the presence of α-MoO 3 and h-MoO 3 phases in the structure of HT-MoO 3 /C. The increased specific capacitance delivered by the HT-MoO 3 /C electrode as compared to the α-MoO 3 -ref electrode in 5M ZnCl 2 electrolyte in a −0.25–0.70 V vs. Ag/AgCl potential window triggered a more detailed study in an expanded potential window. In the 5M ZnCl 2 electrolyte at a scan rate of 2 mV s −1 , the HT-MoO 3 /C electrode shows a second cycle capacitance of 347.6 F g −1 . The higher electrochemical performance of the HT-MoO 3 /C electrode can be attributed to the presence of carbon in its structure, which can facilitate electron transport. Our study provides a new route for further development of metal oxides for energy storage applications.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 19, 2023
  4. Chemically preintercalated dopamine (DOPA) molecules were used as both reducing agent and carbon precursor to prepare δ-V2O5∙nH2O/C, H2V3O8/C, VO2(B)/C and V2O3/C nanocomposites via hydrothermal treatment or hydrothermal treatment followed by annealing under Ar flow. We found that the phase composition and morphology of the produced composites are influenced by the DOPA:V2O5 ratio used to synthesize (DOPA)xV2O5 precursors through DOPA diffusion into the interlayer region of δ-V2O5∙nH2O framework. The increase of DOPA concentration in the reaction mixture led to more pronounced reduction of vanadium and a higher fraction of carbon in the composites’ structure, as evidenced by XPS and Raman spectroscopymore »measurements. The electrochemical charge storage properties of the synthesized nanocomposites were evaluated in Li-ion cells with non-aqueous electrolyte. δ-V2O5∙nH2O/C, H2V3O8/C, VO2(B)/C, and V2O3/C electrodes delivered high initial capacities of 214, 252, 279, and 637 mAh·g–1, respectively. The insights provided by this investigation open up the possibility of creating new nanocomposite oxide/carbon electrodes for a variety of applications such as energy storage, sensing and electrochromic devices.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 19, 2023
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023
  6. A free-standing film composed of bilayered vanadium oxide nanoflakes is for the first time synthesized using a new low-energy process. The precursor powder, δ-Li x V 2 O 5 · n H 2 O, was prepared using a simple sol–gel based chemical preintercalation synthesis procedure. δ-Li x V 2 O 5 · n H 2 O was dispersed and probe sonicated in N -methyl pyrrolidone to exfoliate the bilayers followed by vacuum filtration resulting in the formation of a free-standing film with obsidian color. X-ray diffraction showed lamellar ordering of a single-phase material with a decreased interlayer distance compared tomore »that of the precursor powder. Scanning electron microscopy images demonstrated stacking of the individual nanoflakes. This morphology was further confirmed with scanning transmission electron microscopy that showed highly malleable nanoflakes consisting of ∼10–100 vanadium oxide bilayers. One of the most important consequences of this morphological rearrangement is that the electronic conductivity of the free-standing film, measured by the four-probe method, increased by an order of magnitude compared to conductivity of the pressed pellet made of precursor powder. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements showed the coexistence of both V 5+ and V 4+ oxidation states in the exfoliated sample, possibly contributing to the change in electronic conductivity. The developed approach provides the ability to maintain the phase purity and crystallographic order during the exfoliation process, coupled with the formation of a free-standing film of enhanced conductivity. The produced bilayered vanadium oxide nanoflakes can be used as the building blocks for the synthesis of versatile two-dimensional heterostructures to create innovative electrodes for electrochemical energy storage applications.« less
  7. Lithium-ion batteries, which power portable electronics, electric vehicles, and stationary storage, have been recognized with the 2019 Nobel Prize in chemistry. The development of nanomaterials and their related processing into electrodes and devices can improve the performance and/or development of the existing energy storage systems. We provide a perspective on recent progress in the application of nanomaterials in energy storage devices, such as supercapacitors and batteries. The versatility of nanomaterials can lead to power sources for portable, flexible, foldable, and distributable electronics; electric transportation; and grid-scale storage, as well as integration in living environments and biomedical systems. To overcome limitationsmore »of nanomaterials related to high reactivity and chemical instability caused by their high surface area, nanoparticles with different functionalities should be combined in smart architectures on nano- and microscales. The integration of nanomaterials into functional architectures and devices requires the development of advanced manufacturing approaches. We discuss successful strategies and outline a roadmap for the exploitation of nanomaterials for enabling future energy storage applications, such as powering distributed sensor networks and flexible and wearable electronics.« less