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  1. Control over the correlations between spatial modes in quantum states of light allows high-capacity secure information encoding. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 2, 2024
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  3. Quantum states of light can enable sensing configurations with sensitivities beyond the shot-noise limit (SNL). In order to better take advantage of available quantum resources and obtain the maximum possible sensitivity, it is necessary to determine fundamental sensitivity limits for different possible configurations for a given sensing system. Here, due to their wide applicability, we focus on optical resonance sensors, which detect a change in a parameter of interest through a resonance shift. We compare their fundamental sensitivity limits set by the quantum Cramér-Rao bound (QCRB) based on the estimation of changes in transmission or phase of a probing bright two-mode squeezed state (bTMSS) of light. We show that the fundamental sensitivity results from an interplay between the QCRB and the transfer function of the system. As a result, for a resonance sensor with a Lorentzian lineshape a phase-based scheme outperforms a transmission-based one for most of the parameter space; however, this is not the case for lineshapes with steeper slopes, such as higher order Butterworth lineshapes. Furthermore, such an interplay results in conditions under which the phase-based scheme provides a higher sensitivity but a smaller degree of quantum enhancement than the transmission-based scheme. We also study the effect of losses external to the sensor on the degree of quantum enhancement and show that for certain conditions, probing with a classical state can provide a higher sensitivity than probing with a bTMSS. Finally, we discuss detection schemes, namely optimized intensity-difference and optimized homodyne detection, that can achieve the fundamental sensitivity limits even in the presence of external losses. 
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