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The core root microbiome of Spartina alterniflora is predominated by sulfur-oxidizing and sulfate-reducing bacteria in Georgia salt marshes, USAAbstract Background Salt marshes are dominated by the smooth cordgrass Spartina alterniflora on the US Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coastlines. Although soil microorganisms are well known to mediate important biogeochemical cycles in salt marshes, little is known about the role of root microbiomes in supporting the health and productivity of marsh plant hosts. Leveraging in situ gradients in aboveground plant biomass as a natural laboratory, we investigated the relationships between S. alterniflora primary productivity, sediment redox potential, and the physiological ecology of bulk sediment, rhizosphere, and root microbial communities at two Georgia barrier islands over two growing seasons. Results A marked decrease in prokaryotic alpha diversity with high abundance and increased phylogenetic dispersion was found in the S. alterniflora root microbiome. Significantly higher rates of enzymatic organic matter decomposition, as well as the relative abundances of putative sulfur (S)-oxidizing, sulfate-reducing, and nitrifying prokaryotes correlated with plant productivity. Moreover, these functional guilds were overrepresented in the S. alterniflora rhizosphere and root core microbiomes. Core microbiome bacteria from the Candidatus Thiodiazotropha genus, with the metabolic potential to couple S oxidation with C and N fixation, were shown to be highly abundant in the root and rhizosphere of S. alterniflora . Conclusionsmore »Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
Draft metagenome sequences of Sphagnum (peat moss) from ambient and warmed environments across EuropeWe present 49 metagenome assemblies of the microbiome associated with Sphagnum (peat moss) collected from ambient, artificially warmed, and geothermally warmed conditions across Europe. These data will enable further research regarding the impact of climate change on plant-microbe symbiosis, ecology, and ecosystem functioning of northern peatland ecosystems.Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 7, 2023
Defining the Sphagnum Core Microbiome across the North American Continent Reveals a Central Role for Diazotrophic Methanotrophs in the Nitrogen and Carbon Cycles of Boreal Peatland EcosystemsMartiny, Jennifer B. (Ed.)ABSTRACT Peat mosses of the genus Sphagnum are ecosystem engineers that frequently predominate over photosynthetic production in boreal peatlands. Sphagnum spp. host diverse microbial communities capable of nitrogen fixation (diazotrophy) and methane oxidation (methanotrophy), thereby potentially supporting plant growth under severely nutrient-limited conditions. Moreover, diazotrophic methanotrophs represent a possible “missing link” between the carbon and nitrogen cycles, but the functional contributions of the Sphagnum -associated microbiome remain in question. A combination of metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, and dual-isotope incorporation assays was applied to investigate Sphagnum microbiome community composition across the North American continent and provide empirical evidence for diazotrophic methanotrophy in Sphagnum -dominated ecosystems. Remarkably consistent prokaryotic communities were detected in over 250 Sphagnum SSU rRNA libraries from peatlands across the United States (5 states, 17 bog/fen sites, 18 Sphagnum species), with 12 genera of the core microbiome comprising 60% of the relative microbial abundance. Additionally, nitrogenase ( nifH ) and SSU rRNA gene amplicon analysis revealed that nitrogen-fixing populations made up nearly 15% of the prokaryotic communities, predominated by Nostocales cyanobacteria and Rhizobiales methanotrophs. While cyanobacteria comprised the vast majority (>95%) of diazotrophs detected in amplicon and metagenome analyses, obligate methanotrophs of the genus Methyloferula (order Rhizobiales ) accounted for one-quartermore »Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 22, 2023