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  1. Despite the trend of incorporating heterogeneity and specialization in hardware, the development of heterogeneous applications is limited to a handful of engineers with deep hardware expertise. We propose HeteroGen that takes C/C++ code as input and automatically generates an HLS version with test behavior preservation and better performance. Key to the success of HeteroGen is adapting the idea of search-based program repair to the heterogeneous computing domain, while addressing two technical challenges. First, the turn-around time of HLS compilation and simulation is much longer than the usual C/C++ compilation and execution time; therefore, HeteroGen applies pattern-oriented program edits guided by common fix patterns and their dependences. Second, behavior and performance checking requires testing, but test cases are often unavailable. Thus, HeteroGen auto-generates test inputs suitable for checking C to HLS-C conversion errors, while providing high branch coverage for the original C code. An evaluation of HeteroGen shows that it produces an HLS-compatible version for nine out of ten real-world heterogeneous applications fully automatically, applying up to 438 lines of edits to produce an HLS version 1.63x faster than the original version.
  2. To process real-world datasets, modern data-parallel systems often require extremely large amounts of memory, which are both costly and energy inefficient. Emerging non-volatile memory (NVM) technologies offer high capacity compared to DRAM and low energy compared to SSDs. Hence, NVMs have the potential to fundamentally change the dichotomy between DRAM and durable storage in Big Data processing. However, most Big Data applications are written in managed languages and executed on top of a managed runtime that already performs various dimensions of memory management. Supporting hybrid physical memories adds a new dimension, creating unique challenges in data replacement. This article proposes Panthera, a semantics-aware, fully automated memory management technique for Big Data processing over hybrid memories. Panthera analyzes user programs on a Big Data system to infer their coarse-grained access patterns, which are then passed to the Panthera runtime for efficient data placement and migration. For Big Data applications, the coarse-grained data division information is accurate enough to guide the GC for data layout, which hardly incurs overhead in data monitoring and moving. We implemented Panthera in OpenJDK and Apache Spark. Based on Big Data applications’ memory access pattern, we also implemented a new profiling-guided optimization strategy, which is transparent tomore »applications. With this optimization, our extensive evaluation demonstrates that Panthera reduces energy by 32–53% at less than 1% time overhead on average. To show Panthera’s applicability, we extend it to QuickCached, a pure Java implementation of Memcached. Our evaluation results show that Panthera reduces energy by 28.7% at 5.2% time overhead on average.« less