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  1. Recent developments in atomic physics have enabled the experimental generation of many-body entangled states to boost the performance of quantum sensors beyond the Standard Quantum Limit (SQL). This limit is imposed by the inherent projection noise of a quantum measurement. In this Perspective article, we describe the commonly used experimental methods to create many-body entangled states to operate quantum sensors beyond the SQL. In particular, we focus on the potential of applying quantum entanglement to state-of-the-art optical atomic clocks. In addition, we present recently developed time-reversal protocols that make use of complex states with high quantum Fisher information without requiring sub-SQL measurement resolution. We discuss the prospects for reaching near-Heisenberg limited quantum metrology based on such protocols. 
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  2. We report a high-finesse bow-tie cavity designed for atomic physics experiments with Rydberg atom arrays. The cavity has a finesse of 51,000 and a waist of 7.1μm at the cesium D2 line (852 nm). With these parameters, the cavity is expected to induce strong coupling between a single atom and a single photon, corresponding to a cooperativity per traveling mode of 35 at the cavity waist. To trap and image atoms, the cavity setup utilizes two in-vacuum aspheric lenses with a numerical aperture (NA) of 0.35 and is capable of housingNA = 0.5 microscope objectives. In addition, the large atom-mirror distance (≳<#comment/>1.5cm) provides good optical access and minimizes stray electric fields at the position of the atoms. This cavity setup can operate in tandem with a Rydberg array platform, creating a fully connected system for quantum simulation and computation.

     
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  3. Linear quantum measurements with independent particles are bounded by the standard quantum limit, which limits the precision achievable in estimating unknown phase parameters. The standard quantum limit can be overcome by entangling the particles, but the sensitivity is often limited by the final state readout, especially for complex entangled many-body states with non-Gaussian probability distributions. Here, by implementing an effective time-reversal protocol in an optically engineered many-body spin Hamiltonian, we demonstrate a quantum measurement with non-Gaussian states with performance beyond the limit of the readout scheme. This signal amplification through a time-reversed interaction achieves the greatest phase sensitivity improvement beyond the standard quantum limit demonstrated to date in any full Ramsey interferometer. These results open the field of robust time-reversal-based measurement protocols offering precision not too far from the Heisenberg limit. Potential applications include quantum sensors that operate at finite bandwidth, and the principle we demonstrate may also advance areas such as quantum engineering, quantum measurements and the search for new physics using optical-transition atomic clocks. 
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  4. The realization of an efficient quantum optical interface for multi-qubit systems is an outstanding challenge in science and engineering. Using two atoms in individually controlled optical tweezers coupled to a nanofabricated photonic crystal cavity, we demonstrate entanglement generation, fast nondestructive readout, and full quantum control of atomic qubits. The entangled state is verified in free space after being transported away from the cavity by encoding the qubits into long-lived states and using dynamical decoupling. Our approach bridges quantum operations at an optical link and in free space with a coherent one-way transport, potentially enabling an integrated optical interface for atomic quantum processors. 
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