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  1. Holocene climate in the high tropical Andes was characterized by both gradual and abrupt changes, which disrupted the hydrological cycle and impacted landscapes and societies. High-resolution paleoenvironmental records are essential to contextualize archaeological data and to evaluate the sociopolitical response of ancient societies to environmental variability. Middle-to-Late Holocene water levels in Lake Titicaca were reevaluated through a transfer function model based on measurements of organic carbon stable isotopes, combined with high-resolution profiles of other geochemical variables and paleoshoreline indicators. Our reconstruction indicates that following a prolonged low stand during the Middle Holocene (4000 to 2400 BCE), lake level rose rapidly ~15 m by 1800 BCE, and then increased another 3 to 6 m in a series of steps, attaining the highest values after ~1600 CE. The largest lake-level increases coincided with major sociopolitical changes reported by archaeologists. In particular, at the end of the Formative Period (500 CE), a major lake-level rise inundated large shoreline areas and forced populations to migrate to higher elevation, likely contributing to the emergence of the Tiwanaku culture. 
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  2. The Amazonia biome hosts upland closed and open vegetation ecosystems, in which the current biogeographical patterns relate to the evolution of the physical landscape. Therefore, understanding the origin and timing of the substrates supporting different ecosystems is indispensable for better comprehension of Amazonian biogeography. Here we used quartz optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and thermally transferred optically stimulated luminescence (TT-OSL) for dating sandy substrates of closed and open vegetation environments in Central and Eastern Amazonia, from both outcrop and drill core samples (Autazes core: PBAT-15-43). These sandy substrates present ages ranging from 1 ka up to almost 2 Ma, that were primarily interpreted as depositional ages of fluvial terraces. Moreover, ages are discussed in terms of potential geomorphic processes leading to the formation of substrates, such as soil mixing and apparent age of quartz from the parent bedrock. The coupling between OSL and TT-OSL techniques allow us to date sedimentary deposits covering the whole Quaternary, which implies a new time window for the Amazonia history. 
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