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  1. Abstract

    While it is generally believed that supermassive black holes (SMBHs) lie in most galaxies with bulges, few SMBHs have been confirmed in bulgeless galaxies. Identifying such a population could provide important insights to the BH seed population and secular BH growth. To this end, we obtained near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic observations of a sample of low-redshift bulgeless galaxies with mid-infrared colors suggestive of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We find additional evidence of AGN activity (such as coronal lines and broad permitted lines) in 69% (9/13) of the sample, demonstrating that mid-infrared selection is a powerful tool to detect AGNs. More than half of the galaxies with confirmed AGN activity show fast outflows in [Oiii] in the optical and/or [Sivi] in the NIR, with the latter generally having much faster velocities that are also correlated to their spatial extent. We are also able to obtain virial BH masses for some targets and find they fall within the scatter of other late-type galaxies in theMBHMstellarrelation. The fact that they lack a significant bulge component indicates that secular processes, likely independent of major mergers, grew these BHs to supermassive sizes. Finally, we analyze the rotational gas kinematics and find two notable exceptions: twomore »AGN hosts with outflows that appear to be rotating faster than expected. There is an indication that these two galaxies have stellar masses significantly lower than expected from their dark matter halo masses. This, combined with the observed AGN activity and strong gas outflows, may be evidence of the effects of AGN feedback.

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  2. ABSTRACT

    Powerful outflows are thought to play a critical role in galaxy evolution and black hole growth. We present the first large-scale systematic study of ionized outflows in paired galaxies and post-mergers compared to a robust control sample of isolated galaxies. We isolate the impact of the merger environment to determine if outflow properties depend on merger stage. Our sample contains ∼4000 paired galaxies and ∼250 post-mergers in the local universe (0.02 ≤ z ≤ 0.2) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 (SDSS DR 7) matched in stellar mass, redshift, local density of galaxies, and [O iii] λ5007 luminosity to a control sample of isolated galaxies. By fitting the [O iii] λ5007 line, we find ionized outflows in ∼15 per cent of our entire sample. Outflows are much rarer in star-forming galaxies compared to active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and outflow incidence and velocity increase with [O iii] λ5007 luminosity. Outflow incidence is significantly elevated in the optical + mid-infrared selected AGN compared to purely optical AGN; over 60 per cent show outflows at the highest luminosities ($L_{\mathrm{[OIII]~\lambda 5007}}\, \gtrsim$ 1042 erg s−1), suggesting mid-infrared AGN selection favours galaxies with powerful outflows, at least for higher [O iii] λ5007 luminosities. However, we find no statistically significant difference in outflow incidence, velocity, and luminosity inmore »mergers compared to isolated galaxies, and there is no dependence on merger stage. Therefore, while interactions are predicted to drive gas inflows and subsequently trigger nuclear star formation and accretion activity, when the power source of the outflow is controlled for, the merging environment has no further impact on the large-scale ionized outflows as traced by [O iii] λ5007.

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  3. ABSTRACT

    We present a suite of 16 high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations of an isolated dwarf galaxy (gaseous and stellar disc plus a stellar bulge) within an initially cuspy dark matter (DM) halo, including self-interactions between the DM particles; as well as stochastic star formation and subsequent supernova feedback (SNF), implemented using the stellar feedback model SMUGGLE. The simulations start from identical initial conditions, and we regulate the strength of DM self-interactions and SNF by systematically varying the self-interacting DM (SIDM) momentum transfer cross-section and the gas density threshold for star formation. The DM halo forms a constant density core of similar size and shape for several combinations of those two parameters. Haloes with cores that are formed due to SIDM (adiabatic cusp-core transformation) have velocity dispersion profiles that are closer to isothermal than those of haloes with cores that are formed due to SNF in simulations with bursty star formation (impulsive cusp-core transformation). Impulsive SNF can generate positive stellar age gradients and increase random motion in the gas at the centre of the galaxy. Simulated galaxies in haloes with cores that were formed adiabatically are spatially more extended, with stellar metallicity gradients that are shallower (at late times) than those of galaxiesmore »in other simulations. Such observable properties of the gas and the stars, which indicate either an adiabatic or an impulsive evolution of the gravitational potential, may be used to determine whether observed cores in DM haloes are formed through DM self-interactions or in response to impulsive SNF.

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  4. Abstract

    We carried out spectroscopic monitoring of 21 low-redshift Seyfert 1 galaxies using the Kast double spectrograph on the 3 m Shane telescope at Lick Observatory from 2016 April to 2017 May. Targeting active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with luminosities ofλLλ(5100 Å) ≈ 1044erg s−1and predicted Hβlags of ∼20–30 days or black hole masses of 107–108.5M, our campaign probes luminosity-dependent trends in broad-line region (BLR) structure and dynamics as well as to improve calibrations for single-epoch estimates of quasar black hole masses. Here we present the first results from the campaign, including Hβemission-line light curves, integrated Hβlag times (8–30 days) measured againstV-band continuum light curves, velocity-resolved reverberation lags, line widths of the broad Hβcomponents, and virial black hole mass estimates (107.1–108.1M). Our results add significantly to the number of existing velocity-resolved lag measurements and reveal a diversity of BLR gas kinematics at moderately high AGN luminosities. AGN continuum luminosity appears not to be correlated with the type of kinematics that its BLR gas may exhibit. Follow-up direct modeling of this data set will elucidate the detailed kinematics and provide robust dynamical black hole masses for several objects in this sample.

  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2023
  6. Abstract We have modeled the velocity-resolved reverberation response of the H β broad emission line in nine Seyfert 1 galaxies from the Lick Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) Monitoring Project 2016 sample, drawing inferences on the geometry and structure of the low-ionization broad-line region (BLR) and the mass of the central supermassive black hole. Overall, we find that the H β BLR is generally a thick disk viewed at low to moderate inclination angles. We combine our sample with prior studies and investigate line-profile shape dependence, such as log 10 ( FWHM / σ ) , on BLR structure and kinematics and search for any BLR luminosity-dependent trends. We find marginal evidence for an anticorrelation between the profile shape of the broad H β emission line and the Eddington ratio, when using the rms spectrum. However, we do not find any luminosity-dependent trends, and conclude that AGNs have diverse BLR structure and kinematics, consistent with the hypothesis of transient AGN/BLR conditions rather than systematic trends.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2023
  7. ABSTRACT We present Bayesian active galactic nucleus (AGN) Decomposition Analysis for Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Spectra, an open source spectral analysis code designed for automatic detailed deconvolution of AGN and host galaxy spectra, implemented in python, and designed for the next generation of large-scale surveys. The code simultaneously fits all spectral components, including power-law continuum, stellar line-of-sight velocity distribution, Fe ii emission, as well as forbidden (narrow), permitted (broad), and outflow emission line features, all performed using Markov chain Monte Carlo to obtain robust uncertainties and autocorrelation analysis to assess parameter convergence. Our code also utilizes multiprocessing for batch fitting large samples of spectra while efficiently managing memory and computation resources and is currently being used in a cluster environment to fit thousands of SDSS spectra. We use our code to perform a correlation analysis of 63 SDSS type 1 AGNs with evidence of strong non-gravitational outflow kinematics in the [O iii] λ5007 emission feature. We confirm findings from previous studies that show the core of the [O iii] profile is a suitable surrogate for stellar velocity dispersion σ*, however there is evidence that the core experiences broadening that scales with outflow velocity. We find sufficient evidence that σ*, [O iii] core dispersion,more »and the non-gravitational outflow dispersion of the [O iii] profile form a plane whose fit results in a scatter of ∼0.1 dex. Finally, we discuss the implications, caveats, and recommendations when using the [O iii] dispersion as a surrogate for σ* for the MBH−σ* relation.« less